Glossary

The purpose of this glossary is to define terms used in our website and publications. The glossary is a consolidation of several glossaries, including the:

  • Information Standards glossary of terms
  • Government Enterprise Architecture glossary of terms
  • glossary of ICT groups, committees and industry associations
  • glossary of ICT acronyms, abbreviations and terms
  • Queensland Government Methodologies glossary
  • Queensland Government Information Security Classification Framework glossary
  • Queensland Government Authentication Framework
* Based on Managing Benefits by Steve Jenner © The APM Group Limited 2014. Reproduced with the permission of The APM Group Ltd. All rights reserved.
Terms Definition
2nd generation (2G) Existing narrowband digital mobile phone systems providing voice and data messaging.
3P or PPP Project Program Portfolio.
Acceptance criteria A prioritised list of criteria which the final product(s) must meet before the Customer will accept them. They should be defined as part of the Project Brief and agreed between Customer and Supplier no later than the Project Initiation Stage. They should be in the Project Initiation Document. Criteria require metrics for achievement assessment.
Acceptance testing Testing of software systems to determine whether the system meets the required criteria.
Access Authorisation The system controls and surrounding processes that provide or deny parties the capability and opportunity to access systems (i.e. gain knowledge of or to alter information or material on systems).

In practice, the act of authorising access usually occurs after authentication has been successful. Authentication checks if the party is who they claim to be. Access authorisation checks what the party is allowed to do.
Accessible records Accessible records are records that can be identified, located and viewed as required.
Accountability Public authorities and their employees must be able to account to regulatory authorities, ministers, clients and the public to meet statutory obligations, audit requirements, relevant standards and codes of practice and community expectations. Also refers to the authority to commit resources and who is charged with making a final decision. Often confused with Responsibility.
Accountable officer An officer as outlined in the Financial Administration and Audit Act 1977 (Division 6 - Accountable Officers).
Accuracy A dimension in the assessment of the Technical Condition of an Information Asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It is an assessment of the degree to which an Information Asset can be trusted to provide correct, precise and up-to-date information. An accurate Information Asset correctly reflects what was communicated, decided or done (or not done). The asset's content, context and structure can be trusted as a true and accurate representation of the transaction, activity or fact(s) that they document and can be depended upon in the course of subsequent use.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Accurate record An accurate record correctly reflects what was communicated, decided or done (or not done). That is, the record's content, context and structure can be trusted as a true and accurate representation of the transaction, activity(ies) or fact(s) that they document and be depended upon in the course of subsequent use.
Achievability A rating of the capability and capacity of the organisation to capitalise on an opportunity identified in the Business and Information Visioning workshops or on an Initiative/asset identified in the Program of Work.
ACMA (Australian Communications and Media Authority) See "Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA)".
Acquirer A possible Role for an Information Asset. Describes an asset which the agency has obtained from a source and has either used and/or stored the information again as a separate asset.
(See also "Role")
ACS (Australian Computer Society) See "Australian Computer Society (ACS)".
Activity Any work performed on a project or as part of a program. It may be a task or a set of tasks to be completed. An activity has a finite duration and will result in one or more deliverables. An activity will generally have cost and resource requirements. Some activities are operational in nature and are often ongoing. Activities within a program context (i.e. as part of the program's project list) do not justify being run as projects, yet create outputs that are necessary for the program's success e.g. transition activities.
Actuals The real-life cost or effort incurred in the completion of a task or activity. May include the dates the tasks were started and completed.
Adequate records Adequate records meet the purpose for which they were created and/or kept.
Administration A dimension in the assessment of the Technical Condition of an Information Asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It deals with the availability of administrator support when a request for information is made.(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) See Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.
Agency A government entity under the Public Service Act 2008, section 24.
Agency Architecture Alignment A dimension in the assessment of the Technical Condition of an Application or Technology Asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures the degree to which the application/technology adheres to the set of principles, guidelines and rules defined by the agency to direct the process of acquiring, building, modifying and interfacing ICT resources throughout the agency. These resources can include equipment, software, communications technologies, development methodologies, modelling tools and organisational structures.
(See also "Enterprise Architecture", and "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Agency Coverage A descriptor in the Application/Technology Registers. It indicates whether the application/technology is used at one site or many, and whether it is used in the Brisbane metropolitan area or not. Only the following values are permitted: "single site metro"; "single site non-metro"; "multi-site metro" and "multi-site, including non-metro" for those applications/technologies which are used in multiple CBD and regional sites.
Aggregator A possible Role for an Information Asset. Describes an asset which has been created from combining information from a number of information assets from different sources to create a new information asset. The agency does not accept the boundaries of the previous information assets and attempts to create a new one.
(See also "Role")
AGIMO (Australian Government Information Management Office) See "Australian Government Information Management Office (AGIMO)".
AGLS (Australian Government Locator Service) See "Australian Government Locator Service (AGLS)".
AIIA (Australian Information Industry Association) See "Australian Information Industry Association (AIIA)".
Alignment See "ICT Alignment"
Analytical A Content Type for an Information Asset. See "Analytical Content".
(See also "Content Type")
Analytical content Structured content optimised to support query, investigative or decision making activities. Analytical content will contain not only base information, but incorporate information derived or transformed from the original sources. Analytics may take the form of:
  • Operational information: sourced over a short timeframe, but provision is time critical;
  • Tactical information: sourced over the medium term, with longer lead times on provision; or
  • Strategic information: sourced over the long term, but often requested ad hoc and at short notice.
Analytical content will typically be purposefully de-normalised when compared with Transactional content. Analytical content is primarily query or read only. Examples include: Banking reconciliation report; Customer service centre activity report; Budget trend analysis; Cash flow analysis; Data warehouse; Pivot tables.
Annual Estimated Total Cost of Operation For the purpose of ICT planning, the dimensions of the Annual Estimated Total Cost of Operation are:
  • operational internal and external costs
  • depreciation costs
  • licensing costs
  • other costs.
To obtain a true picture of the total cost of an application, the costs of the underlying infrastructure (the hardware and software platform but not any network infrastructure) should be included. Where several applications share a server/an operating system/a database or other technologies, the annual estimated cost of operation of these technologies should be apportioned between the applications (use a simple division if detailed usage information is not available). For an application which is outsourced (e.g. ICT service provider or an external provider), include the cost of any internal staff involved in providing the service as well as the cost billed to the agency.
Anticipated End-of-Life The date (month, if available and year) in which the asset is expected to be at the end of its useful life. Where the asset is likely to be used beyond the end of its depreciation cycle, the date in which it will last be used should be calculated. However, where such information is not available, the date in which the asset will be written off can be used.
For fleet assets, anticipated end of life represents the date in which the next turnover project is expected to commence.
There are ATO Guidelines on the lifespan of assets which may offer agencies some guidance. Also in some instances, the manufacturer's announced date for end of support for the version or product could be used.
APCC (Australian Procurement and Construction Council) See "Australian Procurement and Construction Council (APCC)".
Application (in the context of the GEA) A software system deployed by the agency which has part of an agency's business process embedded within it. This excludes infrastructure software which is broad-based or commodity in nature.
An Application relates to particular business processes (for example, SAP which would typically be provided only for finance, asset or procurement staff); whereas a Technology is involved with either essential infrastructure or general productivity (such as systems management software or standard issue tools like Microsoft Office which would typically be provided to all staff.
Application and Technology Visioning A step which provides the technology experts with an opportunity to think about and envision future uses for technology which may impact on service or business delivery or business models and approaches for the agency.
Generally this step is performed in a workshop with the focus on the business processes of the ICT providers within the agency. As such it is important that the application and technology portfolios have been created so that all participants are aware of the current environment during discussions.
The list of current and emerging technologies is a useful prompt for discussion.
Application Assessment Assessing each application in the agency ICT application portfolio to determine in terms of its current value to the business, technical condition, cost and potential value then applying an objective process to planning the use of applications in the agency.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Application Domain One of the categories in the Queensland Government's generic classification scheme which seeks to identify the types of Applications required to meet organisational requirements.
Domains are organised in a hierarchy of three levels with Level 1 as the broadest grouping and level 3 as the most specific.
(See also "Application Portfolio Framework")
Application Portfolio The Application Portfolio is comprised of the suite of significant application software, excluding software technologies, within the scope of the planning project which supports the business mission and information needs of the agency.
If a new application is in an advanced stage of development and you know enough about it to estimate its requirements and cost, it can be treated as part of the Application Portfolio. Otherwise, just mention it in the Application and Technology Visioning phase.
Application classification framework A logical structure developed for the Application layer of the Government Enterprise Architecture which defines the Queensland Government's generic classification scheme in terms of software systems or functions required to meet organisational requirements. This framework provides a taxonomy for categorising the software applications used across the Queensland Government so agencies can reach a common viewpoint of the ICT Application Domains across the Queensland Government and become aware of the potential to leverage related domain elements used by other agencies. Note: that the framework is based on what the software does rather than where it is applied.
Application Profile The Application Profile is a standalone document which is used as input for other activities in the ICT planning process.
It contains the results of the applications planning activities conducted as part of the ICT strategic planning process. These are summarised into a profile of all significant applications in use in the organisation within the scope of the planning project (the Application Portfolio) and the extent of their value and level of support for the core business of the organisation’s work units.
The Application Profile includes assessments of how well applications are managed and identifies initiatives to address any strategic and operational gaps which become apparent. These initiatives may include increased investment in some areas and reduced investment in others, taking into consideration the alignment of the current portfolio to the business and strategic direction, the risk inherent in the portfolio and the potential of the portfolio to contribute to planned future outcomes.
The profile summarises the previous information collection and analysis into a document which can be presented back to the business for consideration and validation.
The Application Profile is used as input into the preparation of the ICT Program of Work for the organisation.
Application Profile template A template provided in the ICT Planning Methodology to document the Application Profile which offers guidance in creating the Application Dashboard and evaluating the strategic alignment and positioning of business elements and ICT assets.
Application Register A register of information about the applications in the agency's Application Portfolio. For each application used, the register could hold details of the functions it performs as well as its scope of use, supporting technologies, level of support, anticipated end-of-life and cost.
Applications The suite of applications software that supports the business processes of agencies and supports the storage and accessibility of information.
Note: In relation to the GEA, a piece of software only qualifies to be an application if some part of an agency's business processes are codified in the software. For example, Queensland Transport's TRAILS system is an application but Microsoft Word and Excel are not.
Appraisal Evaluation of options or an initiative prior to investment*
Archives Records that are appraised by State Archives as having continuing value and that have been selected for permanent preservation.
Archiving Process of migrating or transferring inactive information, including records, from an active system, to a repository for longer-term storage, preservation and access.
Artefact A product of the GEA. Essentially the format defined by the GEA for EA Representations.
Examples of the artefacts of the GEA include GEA Position Papers, GEA Policies, and GEA Standards.
Asset An asset in terms of ICT Planning is a tangible or intangible resource and is defined by Queensland Treasury as 'a resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events and from what future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity.
Asset Lifecycle The life of an asset, from when a need for it is first established, through its acquisition, operation and any maintenance or upgrading, to its disposal. It describes the natural evolution of an asset in terms of the increase and decrease in its use and value from inception to retirement.
(See also "Asset Lifecycle Stages")
Asset Lifecycle Stages The management of an asset throughout its lifecycle includes planning and support for the investment decision, acquisition, access and ongoing maintenance, through to replacement or retirement planning. The objective of asset lifecycle management is to optimise asset acquisition, maximise the use of the asset and reduce associated service and operational costs resulting in increased asset performance and a lower total cost of ownership.

The asset lifecycle below demonstrates typical phases and management objectives in the asset lifecycle, from planning the investment decision through to retirement or replacement of the asset.

Asset Management Strategy The generic management strategy (Action) for an asset which is derived in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology from the position of the asset on three Assets Assessment Grids (Risk, Operational Performance, and Attractiveness) according to how it has been rated by the agency in terms of the four characteristics of its Business Impact, Future Business Value, Technical Condition and Scaled Cost. The Action suggested for an asset may be:
  • Optimisation;
  • Replacement;
  • Rationalisation;
  • Enhancement;
  • Further Research/Exploration; or
  • Decommission.
Assumption Something taken as true without proof. In planning, assumptions regarding staffing, complexity, learning curves and many other factors are made to create and plan scenarios. These provide the basis for estimating. Remember, assumptions are not facts. Make alternative assumptions to get a sense of what might happen in your project.
Assurance Refer to Program Assurance or Project Assurance.
Assurance level A specific level on a hierarchical scale representing successively increased confidence that a target of evaluation adequately fulfils particular requirements.
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) A technology for the delivery of digital data over existing twisted pair copper subscriber lines. The analogue telephone service shares the copper with the ADSL signals.
ATIA (Australian Telecommunications Industry Association) See "Australian Telecommunications Industry Association (ATIA)".
Attractiveness A rating of the contribution that an opportunity or initiative or asset can make to the strategic priorities and objectives of the organisation.
(See also "Attractiveness Grid")
Attractiveness Grid One of the ICT Asset Assessment grid models used in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology to assess the contribution that an asset will make to the strategic priorities and objectives of the organisation by considering its capability to deliver future benefits and business changes (Future Business Value) in the light of its current Technical Condition. The significance of the quadrants of the attractiveness grid is as follows:
  • Retire: low future business value with low technical condition;
  • Leverage: low future business value with high technical condition;
  • Streamline: high future business value with low technical condition; and
  • Nurture: high future business value with high technical condition
ATUG (Australian Telecommunications Users Group) See "Australian Telecommunications User Group (ATUG)".
Audio-Visual Record Images or sound created, stored and viewed on media such as motion picture film, filmstrips, sound and video recordings, posters and other graphic works, still images, microfilm, microfiche, aerial film, x-ray film and multimedia formats and associated finding aids, production files, strips and specifications.
Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) Commonwealth regulatory authority for telecommunications and radiocommunications.
Australian Computer Society (ACS) A recognised association for Information and Communications Technology ICT professionals which aims to act as the public voice of the ICT profession and the guardian of professional ethics and standards in the ICT industry.
Australian Government Information Management Office (AGIMO) AGIMO, within the Federal Department of Finance and Deregulation, is aimed at making Australia a leader in the productive application of ICT to government administration information and services.
Australian Government Locator Service (AGLS) AGLS is an extended version of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set. AGLS contains an additional four elements - availability, function, mandate and audience - and allows for structured sub-elements.
Australian Information Industry Association (AIIA) Provides members with information and statistics on the ICT industry.
Australian Procurement and Construction Council (APCC) The APCC is the peak council of departments responsible for procurement, construction and asset management policy for the Australian, State and Territory governments.
Australian Telecommunications Industry Association (ATIA) An industry association representing local and international companies engaged in the design, development and production of telecommunications products and systems in Australia.
Australian Telecommunications Users Group (ATUG) An organisation that provides assistance, advice and information to members to optimise their communications capabilities and costs, and to act as their voice to government, regulators and carriers.
Authentic Records A record that can be proven and trusted to be what it purports to be and to have been created, used, transmitted or held by the person to whom these actions have been attributed.
Authentication Process that verifies the claimed identity of an individual as established by an identification process.
Authentication (in the context of ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology) A dimension in the assessment of the Technical Condition of an asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It describes the level of access control provided for an asset to prevent unauthorised persons using it or accessing particular content. Assessment involves evaluation of the extent to which a user's claimed identity is verified by formal processes before giving the user permission to perform certain operations or use certain methods or services on the asset. The rating is determined according to the level of the following access control services:
  • Identification: determining who can access the asset; Authorization: determining what an authorized user can do (read-only; write - i.e.. can create/add/delete/rename; or execute - if the file is a program); and
  • Accountability: identifying what a user did (for audit purposes).
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Authored A Content Type for an Information Asset. See "Authored Content"
(See also "Content Type")
Authored Content Unstructured content in a wide variety of formats. Authored content are creations that are attributed to an individual or identifiable entity. Unlike its Published Content counterpart, Authored Content is typically restricted in its distribution or kept internal. Examples include: E-mail; Instant messages; Internal memorandums; Briefing notes; Application system code; Presentations; Movies; Electronic messages
Authorised use Use by individuals who have: Received authorisation before operating the relevant device or service; and Agreed to abide by the policies, guidelines and local practice arrangements for use of the relevant facility or device, and who have appropriately acknowledged this agreement where required. (See Examples of authorised and unauthorised use located in the Use of ICT Facilities and Devices (IS38) Toolbox for further clarification).
Authority The ability to get other people to act based on your decisions. Authority is based on the fact that a person has been officially empowered to issue binding orders.
Availability Ensuring that authorized users have access to information/equipment and services when and where required.
Availability (in the context of ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology) A dimension in the assessment of the Technical Condition of an Application or Technology Asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures absolute availability (the proportion of time a system is up and running, as compared to the time it is inoperable due to failures or scheduled maintenance). Note that this is not necessarily the same as the official "availability" statistics which generally do not take into account the time taken for scheduled maintenance.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Backbone Cabling The vertical or riser cabling of a multistorey building (Building Backbone) or inter building cabling of a multi building site (Campus Backbone).
Base Product Name This is only applicable to off-the-shelf products and is the commercial name by which the product is known in the market rather than a name by which it might be known in an agency. This permits easy identification of similar products and is particularly important in capturing information for the Queensland Government Baseline. For example, although a customer relationship management application based on Siebel CRM may be known as "the Client Management system" in your agency, the Base Product Name will permit identification of other applications based on the same product which are in use across Government.
Baseline The reference levels against which a project, program or portfolio is monitored and controlled*
BAU (Business as Usual) The routine, day-to-day operational activities by which an organisation pursues its mission*
BCP (Business Continuity Plan) See "Business Continuity Plan".
Benefit The measurable improvement from change, which is perceived as positive by one or more stakeholders, and which contributes to organisational (including strategic) objectives*
Benefit and Change Owner The role responsible for benefits management, from identification through to delivery, and ensuring the implementation and embedding of the new capabilities delivered - typically allocated to more than one individual. Also called 'Change Agent' or 'Business Change Manager'.
Benefit Owner The individual responsible for the realisation of a benefit and who agrees the benefit profile prepared by the business change manager*
Benefits Dependency Network This tool is a critical success factor in the benefits management process. The network enables the investment objectives and their resulting benefits to be linked in a structured way to the business, organisational and ICT enabled changes required to realise those benefits. The network should be created from the right of the page to left. Construction of the network commences with understanding the drivers acting on the organisation, agreement on the investment objectives for the particular initiative and identification of the benefits that will result if the investment objectives are achieved.
Benefits Management The identification, quantification, analysis, planning, tracking, realisation and optimisation of benefits*
Benefits Management Approach How the program will handle benefits management.
Benefit profile The document used to record and reach agreement (with the benefit owner) on the key details about a benefit (or dis-benefit) including categorisation, scale, ramp-up and tail-off, measures and any dependencies*
Benefits Realisation Plan The plan that provides a consolidated view of the benefits forecast by type/category and which represents the baseline against which benefits realisation can be monitored and evaluated*
Benefits Specialist In support of the Senior Responsible Owner and the Business Change Managers, and depending on the level of complexity of initiatives, a Benefits Management Team of Benefits Specialists and Analysts will be appropriate. A typical Benefits Specialist would be responsible for coordinating the implementation of the agency’s Benefits Management Strategy and the activities in support of that strategy at the program or project level.
Best and Final Offer (BFO) In complex acquisitions of ICT goods and services it may be necessary to engage in a best and final offer process to obtain the optimum results. Such offers may be confined to price, but may also extend to the scope of the goods, equipment and related services and service contracts proposed by a supplier. Formal notice is required in the original invitation document to reserve the right of the agency to issue an invitation for a best and final offer.
BFO (Best and Final Offer) See "Best and Final Offer".
Biometrics A measure of an attribute of a natural person's physical self, or of their physical behaviour. In principal at least, a Biometric can be used:
  • to validate an entity (where the entity is a natural person)
  • as an Authentication mechanism for an entity
  • as means of restricting the use of a personalised credential or token to the appropriate natural person.
Examples include: fingerprint, voice-print, iris-scan.
Blueprint A future model of the Agency or business unit, it’s working practices and processes, the information it requires and the technology that will be needed to deliver the capability described in the Vision Statement. This is often portrayed diagrammatically from a future state perspective.
Bottom-up Estimating Approximating the size (duration, effort and cost) and risk of a project (or phase) by breaking it down into activities, tasks and sub-tasks, estimating the effort, duration and cost of each and rolling them up to determine the full estimate. Determining duration through a bottom-up approach requires sequencing and resource levelling to be done as part of the scheduling process. Best performed by those actually intended to do the work, or those with the same skill sets required for that work.
Building and Entry Controls Access control mechanisms, which restrict access to areas, such as checking of identification, access tokens, smartcards or any other form of identification system.
Building Distributor (BD) The distributor in which building cable(s) terminate(s) and at which connections to the campus backbone cable(s) may be made.
Business and Information Visioning A critical part of the strategic planning process which enables the creation of future scenarios to help drive and direct the investment in ICT in the agency. It provides the agency with an opportunity to think about future business models and approaches.
It usually takes the form of a workshop bringing the ICT Planning Team together with business staff and managers.
The process should consider the needs of the business in the future and provide direction for existing and future information and applications, and possibilities for new information, applications or technologies.
Business Case Provides justification for undertaking a project or program. It evaluates the benefit, cost and risk of alternative options and provides a rationale for the preferred solution (Source: APM, 2013)*
Business Case Management The manner in which the program's rationale, objectives, benefits and risks are balanced against the financial investment, and how this balance is maintained, adjusted and assessed during the program.
Business Change Manager (BCM) The role responsible for benefits management, from identification through to realisation (Source: APM, 2013). A business-based role, the business change manager represents the link between the initiative and the business*
Business Changes Those changes to working practices, processes, and/or relationships which will cause the benefits to be delivered (or begin to be delivered). They cannot normally be made until the new business or technical system is available for use and the necessary enabling changes have been made.
Business Context Diagram A Business Context Diagram is a graphic depiction of relationships among business role-players. It shows external relationships with businesses, individuals and the as well as relationship with internal role players and the agency or business unit being analysed. The diagram consists of labelled circles which represent the role-players and labelled arrows that indicate the type and direction of business interactions. Business role-players are generally organizations, divisions, and departments. The Business Context Diagram can also contain potential role players. In addition to the key role-players, the context diagram helps the Business Analyst to understand more about business functions, behaviour, and outcomes.
Business Continuity (BC) Business continuity (BC) addresses organisational recovery following a disaster. It assumes that prevention arrangements have failed and that an incident has occurred which has interrupted normal business to the extent that corrective action is required.
Business Continuity Plan (BCP) A plan that describes a sequence of actions, and the parties responsible for carrying them out, in response to a series of identified risks, with the objective of restoring normal business operation as soon as possible.
Business Direction The strategic focus of an organisation, a tendency toward a particular end or goal.
Business Domain One of the categories in the Queensland Government's generic classification scheme which seeks to identify the types of Business processes required to meet organisational requirements.
Domains are organised in a hierarchy of three levels with Level 1 as the broadest grouping and level 3 as the most specific.
(See also "Business Portfolio Framework")
Business Drivers Business needs or opportunities which influence business planning decisions. Drivers can be both external and internal but are specific to the context in which the organisation operates.
Business Exposure Grid One of the ICT Asset Assessment grid models used in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology to assess the current risk to the business posed by each asset to the business based on its Business Impact and Technical Condition. The Business Impact can be used to indicate the consequences to the business should the asset fail or not be available. The Technical Condition can be interpreted as a measure of the likelihood of failure. The significance of the quadrants of the Business Exposure grid (in descending order of risk) is as follows:
  1. Extreme - high business value with low technical condition
  2. High - high business impact and high technical condition
  3. Medium - low business impact and low technical condition
  4. Low - low business impact and high technical condition
(See also "ICT Asset Assessment Grid Model")
Business Goals Generalised statements of the long-term targets that an organisation is aiming to achieve.
Business Goals Support A dimension in the assessment of Information Future Business Value in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It deals with the extent to which the use of an Information Asset is capable of furthering the goals of the organisation.
(See also "Business Goals", and "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Business Impact A major characteristic in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures the significance of the Information Asset/Application/ Technology to the business in terms of its coverage and support for existing business outcomes in meeting its operational and service delivery requirements. The evaluation criteria include:
  • the operational/ political/legislative impact of unexpected outage or failure;
  • fitness for current purpose;
  • scope of use; and
  • frequency of use.
The assessment of Business Impact is not designed to determine where the agency would be without this type of application but to determine how much leverage the agency is getting out of the current application. (See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Business Imperatives Government and legal obligations that an agency must fulfil that may not be explicit in their business strategy documents. For example, payroll, financial reporting obligations, ministerial briefs.
Business Imperatives Support A dimension in the assessment of Future Business Value in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It relates to the extent to which an asset relates to the furthering of the business imperatives of the organisation.
(See also "Business Goals" and "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Business Objective Support A dimension in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures the extent to which an application or technology relates to the furthering of the business objectives of the organisation.
(See also "Business Objectives", and "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Business Objectives Specific and measurable outcomes that are to be achieved in a specific timeframe.
Business classification framework A logical structure developed for the business layer of the Government Enterprise Architecture which defines the Queensland Government's generic classification scheme in terms of business systems and functions required to meet organisational requirements. This framework provides a taxonomy for categorising the business processes used across the Queensland Government so agencies can reach a common viewpoint of the Business Domains across the Queensland Government for consistency in ICT Planning across Government. As the framework is based on what the process does rather than where it is applied, such classification can identify any overlaps in business processes and activities within the agency as well as a basis for potential future business partnering between agencies with similar business process profiles.
Business Process A Business Process is the execution of a sequence of related steps in response to an event that leads to a clearly defined deliverable or outcome. A number of role-players may contribute to the execution of an end-to-end Business Process. End-to-end business processes may also cross functional boundaries. If service channels have already been identified, it should be noted that different service channels are usually described in separate Business Processes.
Business Process Register Register which lists the Business Processes of an agency. These can be identified from a breakdown of the major functions of each business or program unit.
Business Profile The Business Profile for ICT Planning is a collection of information on the agency Vision, Goals, Objectives, Strategies and Business Processes within the scope of the ICT Planning Process and the strategic alignment between these elements.
Business Profile Template A template provided in the ICT Planning Methodology to document the Business Profile which offers guidance in completing the Business Dashboard and evaluating the strategic alignment between the elements of business direction and how well they are supported by the business processes.
Business Strategies The generalised mechanisms that the agency employs to assist in achieving the business objectives.
Business Vision The business vision of an organisation reflects the key focus of the organisation and how it wants to be perceived by external parties at some point in the future
Capital Value Estimated cost if an Application or a Technology was to be replaced. This includes not only the purchasing costs but also the costs of any in-house customisation which would be required to meet agency requirements. If a current market price is not available, the original capital value can be used.
Where an application has been totally developed in-house, the project costs for the development should be used.
If the agency has no plans to replace the asset and simply intends to upgrade it, the costs of the next significant upgrade (for example, the cost of moving the application or technology to a different platform) can be used.
If the Technology is a Fleet asset, use the estimated cost of replacing the entire Fleet.
Campus Cabling Cabling on a premises containing more than one building.
Campus Distributor (CD) The distributor from which a campus cabling emanates.
Capability A service, function or operation that enables the Agency to exploit opportunities.
Capture Record capture is a deliberate action that results in the registration of a record into a business system or a record system.
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) See Code Division Multiple Access.
Central Licence Register (CLR) A Software Asset Register available to all Budget Funded Agencies to manage their software licences.
Certification Authority (CA) An Entity that issues Digital Certificates, vouches for their contents, is trusted by Relying Parties to do so and may provide warranties to that effect, and even some level of indemnity.
Change Authority A group to which the Project Board may delegate responsibility for the consideration of Requests For Change. The Change Authority is given a budget and can approve changes within that budget. The Project Board is the Change Authority by default.
Change Budget The money allocated to the Change Authority to be spent on authorised Requests For Change.
Change Control The procedure to ensure that the processing of all program and project issues (scope / schedule / budget changes) is consistent and managed, including submission, analysis and decision making.
Change Management Process of controlling changes to the infrastructure or any aspect of services, in a controlled manner, enabling approved changes with minimum disruption.
Change Owner A Change Owner is an individual or group who will work with the Business Change Manager to ensure that a business or enabling change identified is successfully achieved. In many instances the Business Change Manager will be the change owner.
Change Request A documented request for a change in specific products, scope or other aspects of the plan. All change requests should follow the formal change control procedures.
Channel The end-to-end transmission path connecting any two pieces of applications specific equipment. Includes equipment and work area cables.
Checkpoint A team level, time-driven review of progress.
Checkpoint Report A progress report of the information gathered at a Checkpoint meeting, which is given by a team to the Project Manager, and provides reporting data as defined in the Project Initiation Document.
Chief Information Officer (CIO) The role within an agency, department or other business group, with responsibility for the information technology and computer systems that support the enterprise’s goals. The CIO role is generally responsible for processes and practices supporting the flow of information (information and business layers of the enterprise architecture), whereas the CTO is generally responsible for technology infrastructure.
Chief Technology Officer (CTO) The role within an agency, department or other business group, who is principally focussed on technical issues relating to the delivery of ICT services.
CIO (Chief Information Officer) See Chief Information Officer.
CITEC CITEC delivers both whole-of-Government and agency-specific ICT services, including data centre, infrastructure, network, security, disaster recovery and solutions integration services.
Citizen Citizen refers primarily to Queensland citizens and corporate citizens that are incorporate entities located in Queensland. For access to Government information, it also includes those doing business in Queensland who are located outside Queensland.
Classification Scheme Formal definition of a common set of terms or concepts that are used to describe and represent a domain of knowledge. Classification schemes describe information with different degrees of structure using logical conventions, methods and procedural rules and as such range from simple taxonomies, thesauri, glossary, metadata schemes, to logical theories. Classification schemes provide the contextual metadata of an information asset. If the classifications were produced by the agency then the classifications will also be information assets of the agency. Examples include: Taxonomy, Thesauri, Glossary, Topic Map, Metadata Scheme and ISO 19115 Data Themes.
Client The person or organisation that is the principle beneficiary of the project. Generally the client has a significant authority regarding scope definition and whether the project should be initiated and/or continued. May be synonymous with Users.
Cloud computing A utility model for gaining access to processing and storage capacity without having to own any hardware. A capacity on demand model where you pay someone else for the use of their capacity and you do not neccessarily care how or where it is delivered.
CLR (Central Licence Register) See Central Licence Register.
Code Division Multiple Access (CODA) A sophisticated spread spectrum technique that can be used in a variety of wireless delivered services, including mobile phones. CDMA employs a bandwidth much larger than the original signal. Each signal is uniquely encoded and decoded and allows many signals to occupy the same spectrum.
Collector Where an agency collects personal information the agency is regarded as the collector in relation to that information.
Where personal information is collected by an individual in the course of their employment by, or in the service of, an agency then the agency is regarded as the collector in relation to that information.
Commit A quadrant of the Initiative Priority Grid containing initiatives which have a score of high Attractiveness and Achievability. The organisation should consider these initiatives to be carried further into the Program of Work. Some will deliver quick wins delivering benefits or improvements in service for little implementation effort.
(See also "Initiative Priority Grid")
Communication Plan A plan of the communication activities needed during the program or project.
Community sourcing A way of getting a software development task done through a connected set of people. Take a group of like-minded individuals who have formed an electronic community around a common interest and get members of that community to deliver parts of a software development project.
Complete Record Complete records comprise contextual and structural data as well as content data.
Compliance with Standards A dimension in the assessment of the Technical Condition of an Information Asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It is the degree to which an information asset complies with standards set by the agency, Government or industry. This relates to management processes and contextual and structural representations within the information portfolio that facilitate the provision of information services between suppliers and consumers of information. /(See also "Information Standards", "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Component Diagram See "Solution Architecture Component Diagram"
Component Matrix Addresses the dependencies between identified activities in the Solution Inventory to determine how long a solution will take to implement and its approximate cost. By understanding these dependencies a critical path is established for an initiative.
QGCIO has provided a Component Matrix Worksheet which automatically produces the initiative Dependency Charts and the Dependency Matrix.
Note that no human resource costs should be included in the Component matrix as both internal and external labour costs are calculated in a separate step of the ICT Planning Methodology.
Concession An Off-Specification which is accepted by the Project Board without corrective action.
Confidentiality Ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorised and is protected from unauthorized disclosure or intelligible interception.
Confidentiality Agreement Agreement indicating agreement to abide by agency confidentiality requirements.
Configuration Management Configuration management is focussed on controlling the products being delivered by a project, knowing where they are at any point in time, what their status is, who is working on them and which is the latest version. Normally supported by software tools, it gives management precise control over the project assets (e.g. the products of a project), covering identification, control, status accounting and verification of the products. Maintains integrity and security over accepted products.
Configuration Management Database (CMDB) A database that contains all relevant details of each configuration item and details of the important relationships between configuration items.
Configuration Management Plan Document setting out the organisation and procedures for the configuration managment of a specific product, project, system, support group or service.
Consolidation Point A location for interconnection between horizontal cables that extend from building pathways and cables that extend into work area pathways.
Constraint A restriction or limitation that influences the program or project plan. For example, a target date may be a constraint on scheduling. A schedule may be constrained by resource limitations. Some constraints may also be risks.
Content Type See "Information Content Type"
Contingency Contingency is an amount of money (an allowance or reserve) or an amount of time incorporated when planning to cater for unexpected situations that arise, inaccuracies in estimating or unforeseen changes in development requirements. This is not used for Risk Management, which allows for specific risk budgets.
Contingency Budget The amount of money required to implement a contingency plan. If the Project Board approves a contingency plan, it would normally set aside a contingency budget, which would be called upon if the contingency plan had to be implemented. (E.g. when the associated risk occurs).
Contingency Plan A plan which provides an outline of decisions and measures to be taken if a defined risk or other circumstances, outside the control of a project, should occur.
Consumer The recipient of a payload resulting from a request made to an information service. Consumers operate under agreed levels of service with information service providers. Consumers may also be bound by one or more constraints (such as a licence) applied by the owner over the source information asset. Examples include: Brisbane City Council requests confirmation of the survey details for a land parcel from NRMW and ABS requests a count of new vehicle sales from Queensland Transport. Treasury requests an annual budget report from an agency.
Context Diagram See "Business Context Diagram"
Control The process of monitoring, measuring and reporting on progress and taking corrective action to ensure project objectives are met.
Controlled Environment Environment where security measures have been implemented.
Cookies A message given to a web browser by a web server.
Corporate Body Used to describe any company, government department, corporation, Agency or other body which is involved in the project or program. It can be a customer for the end results, supplier of specialist skills or deliverables, assurance or auditing body. The word is used to avoid confusion particularly between the public and private sectors.
Cost Assessment Tool The Queensland Government rating tool used in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology which turns the Annual Estimated Cost of Ownership of each information asset/application/technology used by the agency into a Scalable Cost with a rating from 0 to 5.
The tool can be found in the Queensland Government ICT Assessments Worksheets and consists of two worksheets: the Cost Table and the Cost Assessment.
The Cost Table worksheet caters for the differences between the size of agency budgets by allowing an agency to select a high value suitable for each of its asset portfolios and then, using a semi-logarithmic formula, generating a range of values which spread the costs of the information assets/applications/technologies across that portfolio. Tables are produced for both integer and non-integer values.
The Cost Assessment Worksheet uses these tables to convert a list of agency assets with their Annual Estimated Cost of Ownership to Scaled Cost Ratings.
Alternatively, the ranges of values can be printed and used as lookup tables to convert the Annual Estimated Cost of Ownership of an asset to a Scaled Cost Rating.
Cost of Operation See "Annual Estimated Cost of Operation"
Cost of Operation less recovery This is the annual estimated cost of operation less any consts recovered from as a result of cross-servicing or shared service arrangements. The scaled cost assessment should be calculated based on this figure.
Cost of Provision The costs incurred in providing access to Government information over and above those costs incurred by the agency in collecting, maintaining and using the information for its business. These are costs that would not be incurred if access to parties outside the agency were not provided. The costs associated with providing access must be proportioned over the external parties.
Cost Recovery This is the cost recovered by the provider from subscribers as a result of cross-servicing or shared service arrangements. The cost should be expressed as the price sharge to their subscriber.
Coverage See "Agency Coverage"
Cranfield Grid (in the context of the ICT Planning Methodology) A framework showing the spread of individual initiatives in a portfolio. Used in the ICT Planning Methodology to ensure that an organisation has a balance portfolio of ICT investments. Within the grid the following quadrants are defined:
  • Strategic – these are initiatives that are critical to the future business success;
  • Key Operational – initiatives that sustain the existing business operation, helping to avoid any disadvantage arising;
  • Support – represent initiatives which improve business efficiency and management effectiveness, but in themselves, do not sustain a business or provide competitive advantage; and
  • High Potential – initiatives that are innovative and may create opportunities to gain a future advantage or benefit, but are as yet not wholly proven.
Creator One of the possible Roles of an agency in relation to an Information Asset. An agency may have direct interaction with the entity from which data is obtained and stored to create an Information Asset or may generate an original set of data in the Information Asset.
(See also "Role")
Credential A Credential is something used to authenticate a user's identity. The user possesses the Credential and controls its use through one or other authentication protocols. A Credential may incorporate a password, a cryptographic key or other form of secret.

The credential may be a physical device such as a one-time-password device, a smart card, a code book, or a logical device, as in the case of a password, the user's knowledge of the secret.
Critical Information Assets Information Assets key to the core operation, performance, capability, viability and credibility of the agency.
Critical Path The path(s) in a program or project network that has the longest duration. In projects this represents the series of activities that determine the earliest completion of the project. There may be more than one critical path and the critical path(s) may change during the project.
Critical Path Analysis (CPA) Critical Path Analysis (CPA) is a planning process that concentrates on the tasks on the critical timeline for a schedule.
Cross-Agency Program A program requiring the committed involvement of more than one Agency or organisation to achieve the desired outcomes.
Crosswalk A table that maps the relationships and equivalencies between two or more metadata formats. Crosswalks or metadata mapping support the ability of search engines to search effectively across heterogeneous databases, i.e. crosswalks help promote interoperability.
Cryptography Embodies principle, means and methods for the transformation of data in order to hide its information content, prevent its undetected modification and/or its unauthorized use.
CSM (Customer Support Manager) See Customer Support Officer.
CTO (Chief Technology Officer) See Chief Technology Officer.
Currency A dimension in the assessment of the Technical Condition of an Information Asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It deals with the lead time for updates to an Information Asset.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Custodian (in the context of the Information Assets) The recognised officer responsible for implementing and maintaining information assets according to the rules set by the owner to ensure proper quality, security, integrity, correctness, consistency, privacy, confidentiality and accessibility. A custodian will be responsible for specific classifications or categorisations of data. In the majority of cases a custodian utilises data managers to handle the day to day activity associated with the custody of information assets and the data they contain. Examples include: The Director General (DG) of NRMW delegates to an Executive Director responsibility for certain Topographic data themes as defined by the ISO 19115 standard. The DG of Queensland Transport assigns an Executive Director as being responsible for Customer data classified according to their Enterprise Architecture Contextual Information Model.
Custody The term custody has two meanings:
  • The responsibility to care for records, archives or other material based on the physical possession of records. Custody does not always include legal ownership, or the right to control access to records; and
  • The physical location of the records or archives.
Customer The person or group who commissioned the work and will benefit from the end results.
Customer Intimacy One of the three disciplines in the Treacy-Wiersema Value-Discipline Model on which an organisation may focus its energies. This discipline is characterised by occupying only one (or a few) high-value customer niches and being obsessive about understanding the individual customers in detail. Market leaders with this focus excel in customer attention and customer service. An example would be the Family Doctor or a Personal Trainer.
(See also "Treacy-Wiersema Value-Discipline Model")
Customer Support Officer (CSM) This role is part of the Microsoft Premier Support Service for budget funded agencies. They are a government employee and are the single point of contract within an agency for Microsoft Technical Account Managers (TAMs).
Dashboard The Dashboard is a tool used in each of the Profile Business, Profile Information, Profile Applications and Profile Technology documents which organises and presents the collected information and its analysis in an easy-to-read fashion.
Data The representation of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalised (consistent and agreed) manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by human or automatic means. Typically comprised of numbers, words or images. The format and presentation of data may vary with the context in which it is used. Data is not information until it is utilised in a particular context for a particular purpose. Examples include; Coordinates of a particular survey point; Driver licence number; Population of Queensland; Official picture of a minister in jpeg format.
Data Centre Ideally a data centre provides a secure and controlled environment necessary to support information technology and telecommunications equipment operation that stores, processes and transmits government information. Data centres maximise this equipment's availability and reliability.

Traditionally it is a large purpose built facility, however for the purpose of this TCBC it will cover any computer room or facility which is used to house operational ICT equipment and systems. This ICT equipment typically includes networking systems (switches, routers), servers and processing equipment and storage systems (tape and disk).
Data Instance A single occurrence of a data item in an Information Asset which contains all the information specific to that data item. In relational database terminology a data instance would be a single record in a table.
Data Manager Typically an officer or other service provider who is assigned to perform one or more activities associated with the day to day interpretation, management, operation and support of data. Data managers may have physical custody of the data, but are typically not assigned any formal custodial responsibilities. Data managers may provide support for data used in multiple information assets and therefore serve multiple custodians. Examples include: Librarians, Database Administrators, ICT Service Providers, Records managers, Archivists and Commercial data sources.
(See also "Custodian")
Declassification of media Declassification is an administrative decision to remove all classifications (such as Information Security Classifications) from the media, based on an assessment of relevant issues including the consequences of damage from disclosure or misuse, the effectiveness of any sanitisation procedure used, and the intended destination of the media.
Decline Stage The penultimate stage of the asset lifecycle when, for whatever reason, use of the asset declines and the level of dependency of the agency on the asset is reduced. Strategies for management can range from keeping it running with little or no improvement, or reducing its use.
(See also "Asset Lifecycle")
Decommission A Generic Asset Management Action for an asset based on its positioning in each of the ICT Asset Assessment grid models of the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. This action would be considered for an asset which has low current business impact, low future business value and is in poor technical condition.
(See also "Asset Management Strategy")
Deep Linking Hyper-linking to an off-site web page which is not the home page of the website being linked to, i.e. linking to internal pages of an off-site website.
Deliverable An item which the project has to create as part of the requirements, and is tangible and verifiable. It may be part of the final outcome or an intermediate element on which one or more subsequent deliverables are dependent. Another name for a deliverable is a 'product'.
Dependency Charts See "Solution Dependency Charts"
Dependency Matrix See "Solution Dependency Matrix"
Dependency Network A representation of all the inputs, outputs or resources from programs or projects, showing how they interrelate and depend on each other - treating each project as a 'black box'. That is, looking at the interdependencies between projects, rather than individual project planning.
Depreciation Costs The costs related to the decrease in value over time of an asset (i.e. for a tangible item of capital expenditure over its useful life). In calculating the Annual Estimated Costs of Operation of an item of ICT equipment, the amount by which the value of the item has decreased during the financial year must be taken into account.
Destruction Destruction is the physical disposal of records that do not have continuing value by, for example, incinerating, shredding, pulping or deletion.
Development Environment A systems area separated from the operational systems area for the purpose of developing and upgrading software systems applications.
Development/ Enhancement Costs Costs specific to a project to develop new functionality, including performance enhancements, for an application. This aspect of cost is separated from maintenance costs which relate to existing functionality.
Digital Certificate An electronic document that asserts a connection between an Identity and a cryptographic Public Key. A digital certificate is tamper-resistant and cannot be readily forged, because it is digitally signed by the private key of the Certification Authority which issued it.
Digital Signature A string of characters appended to a digital object that demonstrates that the originating device had access to a particular Private Key.

An important use is to enable Authentication of the Identity that generated, sent, or takes responsibility for that digital object. This assumes that a considerable number of conditions hold. See Public Key Infrastructure. See also Authentication Concepts document for more information.
Direct Connect Cabling Cabling from the hub/server to the floor distributor.
Disaster recovery planning A series of processes that focus only upon the recovery processes, principally in response to physical disasters that are contained within business continuity management (BCM).
Dis-benefit The measurable result of a change, perceived as negative by one or more stakeholders, which detracts from one or more organisational (including strategic) objectives*
Disciplinary Action In the event that employees and agents are proven to have breached the conditions of a policy or associated policies, disciplinary action, as outlined in the Public Service Act 1996 and an agency Code of Conduct and/or legal action and prosecution.
Disposal The term disposal has two meanings:

The final decision concerning the fate of records. Disposal includes:
keeping all or part of a record;
destroying, deleting or migrating a record or part of a record; and
abandoning, transferring, donating or selling a record or part of a record.

A program of activities to facilitate the orderly transfer of records from current office space into alternative or archival storage.
Disposal Authority A disposal authority is a document issued by the State Archivist authorising the disposal of public records.
Distraction A quadrant of the Initiative Priority Grid containing initiatives which have a score of low Attractiveness but high Achievability. The organisation should investigate these initiatives further with the intent of leveraging higher benefit. If little benefit can be identified the initiative may need to be dropped.
(See also "Initiative Priority Grid")
Document Management The management and control of documents with emphasis on their dynamic and transactional nature including indexing and retrieval, revision and version control, work flow and information content.
Document(s) Document(s) are structured units of information recorded in any format and on any medium and managed as discrete units or objects, no matter how old or recent.
Domain The categories used as part of the Queensland Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA) to provide a consistent and convenient method of logically grouping business processes, information assets, applications and technologies and ICT initiatives into meaningful and manageable areas for analysis. For example, the Technology layer of the GEA contains a domain for Desktop PCs.
Domain Analysis The process by which information used in developing systems in a domain is identified, captured and organised with the purpose of making it usable in new systems. Domain analysis focuses on supporting systematic and large-scale re-use by capturing both the commonalities and the variabilities of systems within a domain to improve the efficiency of development and maintenance of those systems.
The results of the analysis, collectively referred to as a domain model, are captured for re-use in future development of similar systems and in maintenance planning of legacy systems (ie migration strategies).
Domain Coverage The domain coverage is the extent to which the agency's information assets, applications and technologies are distributed across the domains in the relevant Portfolio Framework. For example, an agency’s Information Portfolio is likely to have subject coverage across the three information archetypes within the Information Portfolio Framework (Motivations, Moments and Entities) with a concentration of information assets classified to domains in one archetype depending on the value-discipline of the organisation. For example, an Information Portfolio for a Customer Intimate organisation would expect to see a concentration of assets relating to Entities domains such as 'Places', 'Parties', 'Products', and 'Resources'; with fewer assets classified to domains in Moments, 'Services' and 'Interactions' and Motivations, 'Controls', 'Plans' or 'Responsibilities'.
Domain Name A name given to a host computer site on the Internet.
(See also "Internet Domain")
Drivers See "Business Drivers"
Drop A quadrant of the Initiative Priority Grid containing initiatives which have a score of low Attractiveness but high Achievability. The organisation should consider dropping these initiatives from the Program of Work. These initiatives are unlikely to be viable and represent a higher risk for little return.
(See also "Asset Management Strategy")
Duration The length of time required or planned for the execution of a project activity. Measured in calendar time units - days, weeks, months. Not to be confused with effort e.g. 3 days of effort over a 5 day duration.
Dynamic (Content) Website content that is continually refreshed to provide new or updated information to attract new viewers and to keep prior viewers returning to the site.
EA Classification Model An EA Classification Model is a set of classifications used to organise the elements of an enterprise architecture (EA). Several classification models exist within the GEA, including but not limited to the Business Portfolio Framework, the Information Portfolio Framework, the Application Portfolio Framework and the Technology Portfolio Framework.
EA (Enterprise Architecture) See Enterprise Architecture.
EA (Enterprise Agreement) See Enterprise Agreement.
EA Representations In relation to the GEA, the EA Representations are all of the components of the enterprise architecture that comprise the content (as opposed to the rules and structure) of the GEA. These include a collection of current and target enterprise architectures, and mechanisms/standards for achieving the target enterprise architecture.
Early Start The earliest time a task can begin. The time at which all the tasks' predecessors have been completed and its resources are planned to be available.
Earned Value Earned Value Management is a methodology used for determining project progress. It is based on the assessment of dollar value cost at predetermined points in the project.
e-Commerce Any business exchange or process conducted via computer-mediated networks.
eDRMS (Electronic Document Records Management Solution) See eDRMS.
Effort The amount of human resource time required to perform an activity. Measured in terms of person hours, person days. Not to be confused with duration e.g. 3 days of effort over a 5 day duration.
e-Government (Electronic Government) See Electronic Government.
Electronic Document Records Management Solution (eDRMS) Electronic Document and Records Management consists of an Electronic Document and Records Management system (eDRMS) and set of business processes and activities for documents and records management.
Electronic Government (e-Government) Refers to the conduct of public sector processes, outputs and services through computer-mediated networks.
Electronic Procurement Electronic commerce for procurement, or e-Procurement, is the use of electronic technologies to streamline and enable the procurement activities of an organization.
Electronic Records Electronic records are records created, communicated and maintained by means of electronic equipment.
Electronic records are records created, communicated and maintained by means of electronic equipment. Electronic Service Delivery (ESD) The use of computer-mediated networks to provide additional channels for the provision of public services to households and industry.
Elements The term elements is used throughout the ICT Planning Methodology and, depending on the activity undertaken, refers to the essential components of each activity. For example in the Business Profile activity, the key elements of the Gather are the business elements (Vision, Goals, Objectives and Strategies) which are then used in the other activities, such as classification and mapping.
e-mail/email (Electronic mail) E-mail is used to send written messages between individuals or groups of individuals.
Employees Employees are defined as those engaged on a tenured, temporary, or seconded basis as defined by the Public Service Act 2008 and/or relevant agency legislation. Where contractors are engaged to provide services for, or on behalf of, the agency, contract conditions must clearly reflect the Government’s policy on this issue. Agencies must ensure that other persons, such as students, volunteers, work experience, or other external bodies authorised by the agency to use Government-owned ICT facilities and devices, are aware of and acknowledge the Government policy on the restrictions and consequences of misuse of these facilities and devices.
Enabling Changes Changes which are pre-requisites for making the business changes and/or are essential to bring the new system into effective operation. These often involve defining and agreeing new working practices, redesigning processes, changes to job roles and responsibilities, new incentive or performance management schemes, training in new business skills (as well as the more obvious training and education in the new system), etc. They can often be made, or have to be made, before the new business or system is introduced.
Encryption The process of cryptographically converting plain text electronic data into a form unintelligible to anyone except the intended recipient.
End Goal The ultimate objective of a program.
End-of-Life See "Anticipated End-of-Life"
End Project Report A report given by the Project Manager to the Project Board, which confirms the hand-over of all deliverables, provides an updated Project Business Case and an assessment of how well the project has done against its Project Initiation Document.
End Stage Assessment The review by the Project Board and Project Manager of the End Stage Report to decide whether to approve the next Stage Plan (unless the last stage has now been completed). According to the size and criticality of the project, the review may be formal or informal. The approval to proceed should be documented as an important management product.
End Stage Report A report given by the Project Manager to the Project Board at the end of each stage of the project. This provides information about the project performance during the stage and the project status at stage end.
End-User Licence Agreement (EULA) An agreement between the software owner and the software user as to the terms and conditions of the software’s use.
Enhance A Generic Asset Management Action for an asset based on its positioning in each of the ICT Asset Assessment grid models of the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. This action would be considered for a star performer, which has high current and future business value combined with low costs and a good Technical Condition.
(See also "Asset Management Strategy")
Enhanced Service Delivery A dimension in the Future Business Value assessment in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology, which measures the contribution that the asset is expected to make to the delivery of services to internal and external customers. For example, the asset may provide a level of self-service or enable new service channels to be offered.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Enhancement The work needed to increase an asset's service potential, which is regarded as capital expenditure. Enhancement extends an asset's useful life.
Enhancement Costs See "Development/Enhancement Costs"
Enterprise Architecture (EA) Enterprise architecture is the practice of applying a comprehensive and rigorous method for describing a current and future structure and behaviour for an organisation's processes, information, applications, technology and human resources, so that they align with the organisation's strategic direction. Although often associated strictly with information technology, it relates more broadly to the practice of business efficiency and effectiveness.
Enterprise Agreement (EA) A licensing agreement for large organisations that helps to standardise the IT assets, achieve volume discounts and simplify licence management.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Applications used by large organisations to manage inventory, resources, and business processes across departments in the enterprise.
Entities The most easily identifiable Information Assets are those that relate to instances of entities or things (i.e., tangible items that the business must know about and for which different instances can be uniquely identified or distinguished from one another).
Not surprisingly the majority of domains within the Framework are related to information about entities:

Infrastructures
Parties
Places
Products
Resources
EOI (Evidence of Identity) See Evidence of Identity
Equipment Room A room dedicated to housing distributors and applications specific equipment. This room usually houses the Building distributor and may house the Campus Distributor.
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) See Enterprise Resource Planning.
ESD (Electronic Service Delivery) See Electronic Service Delivery.
Essential Ancillary Services Essential ancillary services (also known as utility services) are productivity, system or network services which are required by business customers, but which are generic or commoditised. In other words they are essential parts of an organisations ICT fabric, but generally offer little in terms of "competitive advantage" or "business process customisation".

ICT services which can be considered Essential Ancillary Services include:

Information Security services including Authentication, Access Control, Auditing, PKI, and Security Certificates;
Identity and directory services;
Messaging services including email, scheduling and calendar;
Productivity and desktop services including personal productivity applications (word processing, spreadsheet, drawing and presentation tools) and file and print services; and
Email feed and scanning, identity management, virus/malware scanning, naming services, proxy services, IP addressing and hosting of web services.

These services have the potential to be delivered consistently and uniformly across government.

As an example, a Whole-of-Government Internet Access Service is a consolidated service, available to all agencies, which provides agency access to the Internet combined with virus scanning, content blocking and filtering and associated security functionality.
Estimate An assessment of the required duration, effort and/or cost to complete a task or project. Since estimates are not actuals, they should always be expressed with some indication of the degree of accuracy (also known as level of confidence).
Estimate to Completion The expected effort, cost and/or duration to complete a product, project or any part of a project. It may be made at any point in the product’s or project's life.
Estimated Replacement Cost See "Capital Value"
Estimating Refer to Bottom-up Estimating, Parametric Estimating, Top-down Estimating.
Estimating Criteria The assumptions, rules, techniques and processes employed by project staff in determining the effort and cost in completing plans in general and schedules in particular.
EULA (End-User Licence Agreement) See End-User Licence Agreement.
Event Based One of the Standard Information Chronometry types used to indicate the relevance of an Information Asset over time. When an Information Asset is exchanged on the basis of an agreed and valid set of changes. Each exchange will be a single item from within the overall series of events. This type of information is most often used when the consumer wishes to take action at their end in response to an event at the supplier (eg, the lifecycle of a licence - application, assessment, approval, issue).
(See also "Information Chronometry")
Evidence The records of a business transaction which can be shown to have been created in the normal course of business activity and which are inviolate and complete.
Evidence of identity Evidence (eg. in the form of documents) used to substantiate the identity of the presenting party.
Exception A situation where it can be forecast that there will be a deviation beyond the tolerance levels agreed between Project Manager and Project Board (or between Project Board and Agency / Government or Program Management).
Exception Assessment This is a meeting of the Project Board to approve (or reject) an Exception Plan.
Exception Plan A plan which follows an Exception Report. For a Team Plan exception it covers the period from the present to the end of the Work Package; for a Stage Exception Plan it covers the period from the present to the end of the current stage. If the exception is at a project level, the Project Plan would be revised.
Exception Report A report which describes an exception, it provides options for the way forward and identifies a recommended option. It is given by the Project Manager to the Project Board.
Exchange Focuses on the concepts related to the exchange of content between parties.
Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) XML is a meta data language to enable the design of individual mark-up languages.
External Organization External organizations include other State Government, Federal Government and local government agencies, the private sector and the general public.
Extranet An Extranet is usually provided for partial access by authorised external users to an agency intranet via a valid username and password.
FCOM (Future CITEC Operating Model) See Future CITEC Operating Model.
Fibre to the node (FTTN) A telecommunication architecture based on fibre-optic cables which run to a cabinet serving a neighborhood. FTTN allows delivery of broadband services such as high speed internet.
Fibre to the premises (FTTP) A form of fibre-optic communication delivery in which an optical fibre is run directly onto the customers' premises.
File A file is an organised unit of documents managed as a discreet object because they deal with the same subject, activity or transaction. Documents within a file may or may not be stored in the one location.
Financial and Performance Management Standard 2009 (FPMS) Administered by Queensland Treasury, this standard provides detailed governance policy to be observed by all public sector agencies in regards to:

The purpose of this standard is to provide a framework for an accountable officer of a department, or a statutory body, to develop and implement systems, practices and controls for the efficient, effective and economic financial and performance management of the department or statutory body.
An accountable officer or statutory body is not limited by this standard but must adopt a proactive approach in monitoring the appropriateness of the systems, operations and overall financial position and performance of the department or statutory body.
Financial Benefit/Value Benefits where there is a direct (cashable) impact on cash inflows (revenue generated) or outflows (costs saved). Also see ‘economic benefits/value’*
Firewall A method of protecting a network against security threats from other systems and networks by centralising and controlling access to the network using a combination of hardware and software controls.
Fit for Current Purpose A dimension in the assessment of the Business Impact of an asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It deals with the extent to which the current functionality of the Information Asset/Application/ Technology meets the need of the particular business area (NB: not the entire business of the agency) in which it is used.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Fleet A number of similar hardware devices such as PCs and printers which are distributed across the organisation and are purchased and rolled out as a unit under a capital management plan.
Fleet Management The management of a Fleet of hardware devices. For example, an organisation with a large number of PCs might find it logistically better to replace only a percentage of them every year.
Fleet Turnover For devices which are managed as a fleet in line with a capital management plan and are only partially replaced over a given period.
In the Methodology only hardware technologies, such as desktop PCs and printers, are treated as a fleet and the turnover is the number of those devices which are replaced annually.
(See also "Percentage of Annual Fleet Turnover")
Float The amount of time available for a task to slip before it results in a delay of the project or program’s end date. It is the difference between the task's/project’s early and late start dates.
Floor Distributor The distributor used to connect between the horizontal cable and other cabling subsystems or equipment.
Follow-on Action Recommendations A report which can be used as input to the process of creating a Project Business Case/Project Mandate for any follow-on project, and for recording any follow-on instructions covering incomplete products or outstanding issues. It also sets out proposals for post implementation review of the project's products.
Forward Work Plan The prioritised list of work items that the business can potentially undertake to enhance or optimise its business operations. The Program of Work document outlines the projects, tasks and activities to be undertaken for a specified timeframe.
Frame A general term to describe any assembly of cabling hardware providing for termination and cross connection of cabling by means of jumpers or patch cords.
Freedom of Information (FOI) Freedom of information is the legal right, subject to certain exclusions, of the public, to access and correct public records.
Freely Accessible Freely accessible means access is available to citizens at no charge in a widely accessible form and at their reasonable convenience either electronically or, if necessary, in paper format through public libraries.
Frequency of use A dimension in assessment of Application/Technology Business Impact in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology, which measures how often an Application/Technology is used in an agency (daily, weekly, monthly, intermittently, annually).
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
FTTN (Fibre to the Node) See "Fibre to the node".
FTTP (Fibre to the Premises) See "Fibre to the premises".
Full and Accurate Record The term "full and accurate" describes the essential characteristics of records that distinguish them from other forms of information.
Function A function is the largest unit of business activity in an organization or jurisdiction.
Functional Utility A dimension of the assessment of the Future Business Value of an ICT asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It explores the degree to which any functionality that is not currently being used by the agency can be exploited in the future, either within the agency or across Government.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Future Business Value A characteristic in the assessment of an asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It refers to the capability of the asset to support future business strategies and objectives of the organisation. This includes the potential of the asset to deliver future benefits and contribute towards growth and improved service delivery and takes into account the extent to which currently unused functionality of the asset can be exploited in the agency and across Government.
Dimensions of Future Business Value include:

Functional Utility;
Business Goals Support;
Business Imperatives Support;
Legislative and Political Support;
Enhanced Service Delivery;
Measurable Benefits;
Risk Reduction;
Organisational Innovation and Growth; and
Improved Fiscal Outcomes.

(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Future CITEC Operating Model (FCOM) A project aimed at refocusing CITEC to be the primary provider of whole-of-Government technology services. CITEC will now deliver both whole-of-Government and agency-specific ICT services, including data centre, infrastructure, network, security, disaster recovery and solutions integration services.
Future Risk Reduction A dimension in the assessment of Future Business Value of an asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It deals with the degree to which an asset will contribute towards the reduction of business risks for the organisation. To assess this you need to identify the key organisational risks to your agency. Systems which assess the likelihood of the risk occurring and its impact or the systems which track the outcomes of mitigation actions all contribute to reducing the overall business risk.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology"
Gannt Chart A bar chart that depicts a schedule of activities and milestones. Generally activities (which may be projects, operational activities, project activities, tasks, etc.) are listed along the left side of the chart and the time line along the top or bottom. The activities are shown as horizontal bars of a length equivalent to the duration of the activity. Gantt Charts may be annotated with dependency relationships and other schedule-related information.
Gateway Review The formal and independent review of the program (or project) providing assurance on whether the program is operating effectively and is likely to achieve its outcomes.
GEA See "Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA)"
GEA Definition Paper (formerly called GEA White Paper) Provides background to a topic and aims to provide a standard meaning for terms and concepts to ensure consistent usage and common understanding across the Queensland Government. The use of the term GEA White paper (while an appropriate term in the ICT Industry) conflicts with a similar term used to describe a document that defines the policy of the Government of the day.
GEA Discussion Paper Raises issues on a topic. GEA Discussion Papers are used to promote discussion across the sector and may lead to the development of a policy, standard or position paper. May span multiple domains.
GEA Domain Specification (also known as 'models') GEA Domain Specifications provide design specifications for application within a GEA domain. These will usually be in the form of models but the type of model will be dependent on the domain it is representing.
GEA Guidelines Provides agencies with supporting material, for example, advice, toolkits, checklists to help them align with the position, specification or GEA policy.
GEA Implementation Strategies Documents the approach to achieving alignment with position or strategic direction, in a particular timeframe. May span multiple domains.
GEA Policies (also known as Information Standards) Documents policy and mandatory principles for a topic. GEA Policies, like GEA Position Papers have a compliance requirement.
GEA Position Papers Provides the Queensland Government’s position on a topic. May span multiple domains. GEA Position Papers also include a set of objective measures that are to be achieved with their associated timeframes. GEA Position Papers, like GEA Policies have a compliance requirements.
GEA Standards Documents the constraints for a particular area. The constraints are mandatory. These will tend to be technical in nature. For example, a Web Services Interoperability standard defines the way in which international web service standards are to be applied when exposing a technical web service.
GEA Strategic Direction A document that defines a strategic direction to be taken by the Queensland Government. Endorsement of a Strategic Direction indicates in principle agreement to take a particular direction.
GEA White Paper The GEA White Paper has been superseded by the GEA Definition Paper.
Generally Available Publication A magazine, book, newspaper or other publication (however published) that is or will be generally available to members of the general public.
Generic Asset Management Actions Based on the position of each asset on each of the three ICT Asset Assessment Grid Models (Business Exposure, Operational Performance and Attractiveness), broad management strategies for each asset can be considered. There are six recommended management strategies/actions based on the combined analysis of three grid models. These are:

Optimise;
Enhance;
Rationalise;
Research/Explore;
Replace; and
Decommission.

(See also "ICT Asset Assessment Grid Models")
Geographic Information System (GIS) A computer system designed to allow users to collect, manage and analyse large volumes of spatially referenced information and associated attribute data.
GIS (Geographic Information System) See "Geographic Information System (GIS)".
GITC (Government Information Technology Conditions) See "Government Information Technology Conditions (GITC)".
Glossary An alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge; usually published as an appendix to a text or as a stand alone tool. Glossaries are intended to aid communication, identification or classification of information assets. Examples included: Queensland State Archives Glossary of Archival and Recording Keeping Terms, Information Standards Glossary.
Goals See "Business Goals".
GOLP (Government Open Licence Program) See "Government Open Licence Program (GOLP)".
Governance The set of policies, regulations, functions, processes, procedures and responsibilities that define the establishment, management and control of projects, programs or portfolios. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA) The Government Enterprise Architecture provides the framework to support the development of better services for Queenslanders, more efficient and effective use of ICT in the Government, and effective partnering with the private sector.
Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA) Alignment A dimension in the assessment of Technical Condition for an application or technology in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures the degree to which the application/technology adheres to the set of principles, guidelines and rules defined by the Queensland Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA) to direct the process of acquiring, building, modifying and interfacing ICT resources throughout the agency. These resources can include equipment, software, communications technologies, development methodologies, modelling tools and organisational structures.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Government Information

‘Government information’ includes all reports, documents, data sets and information that Queensland Government departments collect or produce for statutory purposes or business needs. Information may be stored in a number of information formats. This includes presentation in electronic (digital), print, audio, video, image, graphical, cartographic, physical sample, textual or numerical form.
Government Information Architecture (GIA) The GIA has been superseded by the Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA).
Government Technical Account Manager (GTAM) This is a role within the Queensland Government Chief Information Office (QGCIO) which strategically manages the Microsoft Premier Support Service (PSS) contract.
Government Information Technology Conditions (GITC) GITC agreements contain standard contractual terms and conditions information and communication technology (ICT) products and services within the Australian public sector. The conditions cover a wide-ranging area of hardware and software purchases, licensing arrangements consultancy and telecommunication services.
Government Open Licence Program (GOLP) A Microsoft transactional licensing program for government under the Q1500 Agreement.
Government Publication A book, manuscript, newspaper, magazine, journal, document, pamphlet, printed music, illustration, map, paper, photograph, microfiche, film, tape or disk, which has been produced by, or on behalf of, an agency for the purposes of informing the public.
GovNet GovNet is the name currently used to describe the Queensland whole-of-Government Intranet which is a broad platform of shared and whole-of-Government ICT services and infrastructure. GovNet services include portal, networking, security, white pages, directory and the secure interconnection of agency email systems.
Green ICT Using ICT operations to help reduce corporate energy consumption and become more environmentally responsible.
Grid Model See "ICT Asset Assessment Grid Model"
GTAM (Government Technical Account Manager) See "Government Technical Account Manager (GTAM)".
HiBIS (Higher Bandwidth Incentive Scheme) See "Higher Bandwidth Incentive Scheme (HiBIS)".
Higher Bandwidth Incentive Scheme (HiBIS) A $108.7 million initiative of the Australian Government to promote equitable and affordable access to higher bandwidth and broadband services in regional Australia.
Highlight Report Report from the Project Manager to the Project Board on a time-driven frequency on stage progress.
Horizontal Cable The cable connecting the floor distributor to the telecommunications outlet.
HTML (HyperText Mark-up Language) See "HyperText Mark-up Language (HTML)".
HyperText Mark-up Language (HTML) The set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on an Internet Browser.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) The set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the Internet. Relative to the TCP/IP suite of protocols (which are the basis for information exchange on the Internet), HTTP is an application protocol.
ICMS (Integrated Client Management System) See "Integrated Client Management System (ICMS)".
ICT (Information and Communication Technology) See "Information and Communication Technology (ICT)".
ICT Alignment ICT Alignment is the condition where agency ICT supports, and is supported by, the agency business strategy (adapted from Gregor, Hart and Martin (2007) Enterprise architectures: enablers of business strategy and IS/IT alignment in government. Information Technology & People; Vol. 20 No. 2 pp96-120). ICT Alignment is indicated by the degree to which the ICT mission, objectives and plans support and are supported by the business missions, objectives and plans. (adapted from Reich and Benbasat (1996) Measuring the linkage between business and information technology objectives. MIS Quarterly; Vol. 20 Issue 1)
ICT Asset All applications and technologies that are owned, procured and/or managed by the agency. These include desktop and productivity tools, application environments, hardware devices and systems software, network and computer accommodation, and management and control tools. See QGEA Application Classification Framework for a list of application domains and QGEA Technology Classification Framework for a list of technology domains.
ICT Asset Assessment An assessment of each Information Asset, Application or Technology in the agency ICT Information, Application or Technologies Portfolios.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
ICT Asset Assessment Grid Models A visual mechanism used in the analysis of an ICT asset to understand its current and future positioning in relation to the total portfolio. Models used include:

Business Exposure (Business Impact vs Technical Condition)
Operational Performance (Business Impact vs Scaled Cost of Ownership)
Attractiveness (Business Value vs Technical Condition).
ICT Disaster Recovery ICT disaster recovery is concerned with plans to restore ICT services if a disruptive incident occurs.
ICT Expenditure ICT expenditure represents an organisation's costs to provide business-enabling ICT services. ICT services encompass the design, development, implementation, maintenance, support, operation and management of technologies to manipulate and communicate business information. These services include software, hardware and support services to convert, store, protect, process, and transmit data, information and voice. Please click here for full definition of ICT Expenditure, BAU (Business as usual) and non-BAU (non-Business as Usual).
ICT Industry Workgroup (ICTIW) The ICT Industry Workgroup is an industry initiative that was formed in January 2005. The purpose of this Workgroup is to ensure collaboration between ICT Industry Associations and to create a united ICT Industry ‘voice’. This results in more effective communication with government and provides the means of jointly working with the Queensland Government to discuss and improve issues identified by the industry such as government procurement and industry development. The Executive Officer for the ICT Industry Workgroup is responsible for coordinating ICT Industry involvement in Queensland Government initiatives.
ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology In many planning and architecture activities, there is a need to assess the business impact, future business value, technical condition and scaled cost of ICT assets including information assets, applications and technologies. Within the context of the Queensland Government ICT Planning Methodology, these assessments are used to create ICT Asset Assessment grid models. Depending on where the asset fall on a particular grid, specific asset management strategies and actions can be considered during planning in relation to the short and longer term management of the Information, Application and Technology Portfolios.
ICT Products and/or Services ICT products and/or services generally cover all types of technology (data, voice, video, etc.) and associated resources, which relate to the capture, storage, retrieval, transfer, communication or dissemination of information through the use of electronic media. All resources required for the implementation of ICT are encompassed, namely equipment, software, facilities and services, including telecommunications products and services that carry voice and/or data.
ICT Resources Defined in the Financial Management Standard 1997 as "the agency’s information and communication technology resources".
ICT Resources Strategic Plan Defined in the Financial Management Standard 1997 as the “ICT resources strategic plan of an agency". The plan must be developed and implemented by each agency during every financial year to comply with section 22 [of the FMS 1997]. It must be consistent with the targets stated in the Government Enterprise Architecture and the mandatory principles of each Information Standard. /The final output of the Queensland Government ICT Planning Methodology is such a plan and contains a synthesis of the findings from the analysis of the business/application and technology profiles and the cost-estimated prioritised program of work together with recommendations to Executive Management.
ICT Support Staff - Queensland Government employees For an Information Asset refers to the number of Queensland Government employees supporting the information asset, performing actual maintenance activities on the data eg: data fixing, data merging and data cleansing. Both business and ICT staff should be included irrespective of whether they are full-time, part-time or casual Queensland Government employees.
ICT Support Staff - Contractors Used in the Application and Technology Registers to indicate the number of full time equivalant contract staff required to maintain the Application or Technology. These contractors may support an application or technology either on-site or externally and do not occupy a Queensland Government employee position number.
Where an application is supported externally, it will include the number, if available, of external contractors as well as any internal contractors involved in support.
Where staff support multiple Applications or Technologies, apportion the number of staff between the Applications/Technologies (a simple division, if detailed activity information is not available).
Include also numbers of Help Desk staff.
ICT Utility Service Essential ancillary services are a specific instance of an ICT utility Service. In general, an ICT Utility Service is defined as follows.

An ICT utility service is an ICT service that can be "commoditised". Some of the essential characteristics of an ICT utility service are:

It is a pure operating expense - with a charging regime that includes a mixture of a fixed subscription costs and costs for unit usage.
Delivery of service is performed in a standardised way in order to achieve economies of scale.
It is often available from multiple suppliers in a competitive manner.
It allows rapid response to changing client demand.
The interface to the ICT utility service is well defined, well understood and has predictable behaviour.
The customer no longer needs to be concerned with the technical details of building and operating the ICT utility service, and is concerned only with what is provided delivered as a service.
ICT-enabled ICT-enabled initiatives focus on delivering improvements to the way of doing business, using ICT as an element. Any initiative requiring information technology and/or communications technology to effect change and realise outputs, outcomes and/or benefits is considered ICT-enabled.
ICTGI (Information and Communication Technology Governance Initiative) See "Information and Communication Technology Governance Initiative (ICTGI)."
ICTIW (ICT Industry Workgroup) See "ICT Industry Workgroup (ICTIW)".
Identity An identity is a unique entity within a particular domain, or a particular presentation of an entity. An identity may correspond to a role played by the entity, and an entity may have multiple identities, though not usually in the same domain.
Identity Directory and Email Services (IDES) An Initiative aimed at delivering whole-of-Government identity, directory and email services which enable Queensland Government employees to access data and applications from anywhere on the government network.
Identity Document A credential comprising writing or printing on paper, or its equivalent in electronic form, which provides evidence of identity eg: birth certificates, passports, drivers' licences, employer-issued building security cards, etc.
IDES (Identity, Directory and Email Services) See "Identity Directory and Email Services (IDES)."
Identity Registration The process where an entity presents a unique combination of attributes to establish an identity. These attributes are verified by a Registration Authority depending on the evidence of identity requirements as detailed by the service provider.
IIB (Information Industries Bureau) See "Information Industries Bureau (IIB)."
IJIS (Integrated Justice Information Strategy) See "Integrated Justice Information Strategy (IJIS)."
IM (Information Management) See "Information Management (IM)."
Improved Fiscal Outcomes A dimension in Future Business Value in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures the degree to which the Information Asset/Application/Technology will increase revenue or lower cost in the organisation (based on qualitative or quantitative evidence).
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Implementation May be a phase in the project lifecycle in which a product is put into use. Also, synonymous with development.
Inception Stage The first stage of an assets lifecycle. It occurs when a business indicated a need which has yet to be met with existing resources. At this stage the problem and a potential solution is identified and some prototyping or proof of concept may occur. The potential long-term use remains unidentified at this stage although there could be considerable capital outlay to initially "develop" the asset.
(See also "Asset Lifecycle")
Incident Any event that is not part of the standard operation of a service and that causes, or may cause, an interruption to, or a reduction in, the quality of that service.
Incident severity rating Classification scale of incidents according to an agreed incident severity scale.
Incremental Delivery Project lifecycle strategy used to reduce risk of project failure by dividing product delivery into smaller, more manageable pieces.
Individual Concerned In relation to personal information or a record of personal information, this term means the individual to whom the information relates.
Information Information is any collection of data that is processed, analysed, interpreted, classified or communicated in order to serve a useful purpose, present fact or represent knowledge in any medium or form. This includes presentation in electronic (digital), print, audio, video, image, graphical, cartographic, physical sample, textual or numerical form.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Refers to applications, information and technology.
Government provided information and communication technology (ICT) services, facilities and devices Government provided ICT services facilities and devices can be those that are owned/operated in-house, or as-a-service. The range of ICT services, facilities and devices include (but are not limited to) personal identifiers (e.g. work email address, payroll or telephone number) desktop, laptop and tablet computers, desktop, mobile and smart phones; removable media; radios or other high frequency communication devices; television sets; monitors, kiosks and consoles, sensors, digital or analogue recorders (including DVD and video); and cameras; photocopiers; facsimile machines; printers (and other imaging equipment); electronic networks including the internet and wireless networks; and applications and software provided by a device or an Internet site including social media, email, identity and web services.
Information and Communication Technology Governance Initiative (ICTGI) A whole-of-Government initiative established to implement the 30 recommendations of the Service Delivery and Performance Commission's Review of ICT Governance in the Queensland Government.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Resources Information and communication technology resources for an agency means the resources the agency needs to meet the informational requirements of the agency and its clients, and carry out the agency's operational responsibilities. It includes the following: Information obtained, produced or supplied by the agency; The information systems of the agency; Equipment or facilities that support the agency's information systems, including, for example, communication equipment or software; The agency's human resources
Information Asset An identifiable collection of data stored in any manner and recognised as having value for the purpose of enabling an agency to perform its business functions thereby satisfying a recognised agency requirement.
Data or information that is referenced by an agency, but which is not intended to become a source of reference for multiple business functions is not considered to be an information asset of the agency. This is merely information.
Information assets are considered to be associated with one of four standard types:

transactional
analytical
authored
publication.

It should be noted that information content may appear in more than one asset. For example, customer details may exist as a transactional asset, but also be represented in a second analytical asset. In this case there are two assets.
It is important to note that an Information Asset may also be considered to be a Public Record if it meets certain criteria. However, not all of an agency’s Information Assets will necessarily be Public Records.
Information Assets within the Information Architecture that are technology dependent are implemented in accordance with the Application and Technology Architectures of an agency or the government. Examples included: Record, Document, Electronic message, Row in a database, Table or figure within a document, Whole database table, Collection of data objects about a single logical entity or concept such as 'customer', Content identified through a URL or URI and Metadata about other information assets.
Information Asset Owner (delegated) The recognised officer who is identified as having the authority and accountability under legislation, regulation or policy, for the collection and management of information assets on behalf of the State of Queensland, usually the Chief Executive Officer (CEO).
Information Asset Security Domain An information asset security domain is a grouping of related information assets that share a security classification. Security domains allow a defined level of security classification to be automatically assigned to assets of the domain. This helps to ensure consistency and reduce workloads.
Information Chronometry The ability of an Information Asset to support a limited or wide range of information exchange scenarios. A controlled list of standard information exchange capabilities are used to indicate the temporal capability of the Information Asset as follows:

last known version
point in time
event based.
Information Content The concepts related to the manifestation of information. It is ultimately the content itself that is used to affect an outcome for government. It is also the dimension of the information architecture that generates the majority of costs to government.
Information Content Type A high level classification which identifies whether an Information Asset contains structured or unstructured content and is used to ensure a consistent approach to the identification and management of the information encountered within Government.
The possible content types are:

transactional
analytical
authoring
publication.
Information Context The concepts related to the schemes used for identification of content to support its creation, use and management such as information classification.
Information Control The concepts relating to the rules and processes that content is subject to. Control provides the ongoing management and governance that ultimately impacts the efficiency and effectiveness (i.e. the value) of content in supporting the needs of government.
Information Domain One of the categories in the Queensland Government's generic classification scheme which seeks to identify the types of Information Assets required to meet organisational requirements.
Domains are organised in a hierarchy of three levels with Level 1 as the broadest grouping and level 3 as the most specific.
(See also "Information Portfolio Framework")
Information Exchange Capability See "Information Chronometry"
Information governance Information governance is the system by which the current and future use of information and its management is directed and controlled. Information governance is further defined within the Information management policy framework.
Information Industries Bureau (IIB) The Information Industries Bureau works with Queensland’s small and medium-sized ICT businesses to help them grow and develop. The IIB is part of the Queensland Department of Tourism, Regional Development and Industry and was established to facilitate the development of an internationally competitive ICT sector in Queensland.
Information Management Information management is the means by which an organisation plans, collects, organises, governs, secures, uses, controls, disseminates, exchanges, maintains and disposes of its information; as well as any means through which the organisation ensures that the value of that information is identified and exploited to its fullest extent.
Information Package Information assets received by a consumer in response to a request (query) of an information service provided by a supplier. The content and structure (schema) of a payload is subject to the definitions that govern the information service and agreed between the supplier and consumer. Often this content and structure will be a direct result of the information assets contained within the payload. A payload, once received by a consumer, may become an information asset of the consumer. Examples included: A book received from the library in response to a request for loan, Full details of a parcel of land, EDI message and XML document.
Information Portfolio The Information Portfolio is the collection of various contextual and structural representations within the scope of the planning project which are used by an organisation to aid in the effective and efficient creation, capture, storage, retrieval and disposal of information. The Information Portfolio manifests as the data architecture including models of information, classification schemes, frameworks and inventories of Information Assets.
For the ICT Planning Baseline, an Information Asset can be excluded if:

it is not electronically dependent i.e. not stored, used, accessed and/or supported by ICT systems
the system upon which it is electronically dependent has been excluded from the ICT Baseline Pass through application of ICT scoping constraints.
Information classification framework A logical structure developed for the Information layer of the Government Enterprise Architecture which defines the Queensland Government's generic classification scheme in terms of the information assets required to meet organisational requirements. This framework provides a taxonomy for categorising the information assets used across the Queensland Government so agencies can reach a common viewpoint of the information assets across the Queensland Government and become aware of the potential to leverage related domain elements used by other agencies. Classifying existing information assets to the Information Portfolio Framework assists identification of common information assets, and common information needs at both a whole-of-Government level or within individual agencies. It helps to highlight where information gaps, duplication or integration problems exist in the current environment.
Information Privacy Principle (IPP) Any of the Information Privacy Principles set out in section 3 of IS 42.
Information Profile The Information Profile is a standalone document that can be read independently of any of the other planning documents and is used as input for other activities in the ICT planning process.
It offers a profile of all significant information assets in use in the organisation within the scope of the planning project (the Information Portfolio) and the extent of their value and level of support for the core business of the organisation’s work units. It includes assessments of how well the information is managed and identifies initiatives to address any strategic and operational gaps which become apparent.
As the profile summarises the previous information collection and analysis into a document which can be presented back to the business for consideration, it provides a tool to gather business validation for the previous activities.
The Information Profile is used as input into the preparation of the ICT Program of Work for the organisation.
Information Profile Template A template provided in the ICT Planning Methodology to document the Information Profile which offers guidance in creating the Information Dashboard and evaluating the strategic alignment and positioning of business elements and ICT assets.
Information Register A register of information about the significant Information Assets in the agency's Information Portfolio. For each Information Asset, the register holds details of its content type, source type, custodianship, information exchange capability, the role played by the agency in its collection, its scope of use and level of support within the agency as well as the ongoing management costs.
Information Service Represents an endpoint that provides a defined interface for access to information assets in a particular business context.
Implementation details of an information service should be transparent to the consumer. That is, it should not be necessary to understand the process of retrieval in order to locate, request and use the information asset(s) returned by the service.
In addition the implementation of the service does not have to be automated - it could consist of purely human to human activity via a variety of channels.
The interface of an information service represents the terms of a contract between the supplier of the service and its consumers. As such it describes the structure of the payload and any other conditions relating to the request for the information asset and/or the response. Such contacts may be in the form of a memorandum of understanding or legal agreement or for electronic information services in the form of Web Service Description Language (WSDL). Examples included: A web service to retrieve an address, Library assistance available via e-mail, Health information available from the SSQ call centre, A form available from a static web site and URL for the download of a particular cadastral data set.
Information Standards Information Standards are documents issued under the Financial Management Standards Act 1997 by Government ICT designed to assist Queensland Government agencies in managing communication and information resources by establishing and promoting best practice.
Information Standards Officers (ISOs) Department-nominated Information Standards Officers provide advice on the Information Standards management process. ISOs assist in determining the extent of review required for Information Standards, and are responsible for coordinating and streamlining the Information Standards development and implementation process within their department.
Information Systems The organised collections of hardware, software, equipment, policies, procedures and people that store, process, control and provide access to information.
Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) ITIL® (the IT Infrastructure Library ® ) is the most widely accepted approach to IT service management in the world. ITIL provides a cohesive set of best practice, drawn from the public and private sectors internationally.
Infrastructure Services Infrastructure services incorporates assets and technology that support the delivery of agency business applications and Queensland Government corporate applications. Includes Server Hardware, virtualisation, operating systems, storage, data protection, ICT Systems management, database software but excludes assets and technology supporting the desktop, generic agency applications and services such as email and printing. Services refers to those functions performed in the lifecycle management of the infrastructure environment such as:

requirements gathering & analysis
planning and design
procurement
deployment
operational monitoring and management
technical support.
Initial Intention (in the context of Information Assets) The initial and major reason for the storage of the Information Asset. The standard decision-making hierarchy levels are used to classify initial intention into one of the following:

strategic
tactical
operational.
Initiative Projects, programs or a recommended course of action collated for analysis and possible incorporation into a forward work plan or portfolio for the organisation.
Initiative Register This Register brings together all the ICT work activities (identified in the business and asset profiling in conjunction with business and technology opportunities) in one list as a prelude to the generation of the candidate program of Work. Both old and new activities are included so that initiatives can be prioritised in a balanced manner and to increase the potential for collaborative investments across divisional boundaries and the re-use of existing ICT assets.
The Register contains a description of the initiative and its purpose, where it was identified, its alignment with business processes and Information Assets, as well as any relevant assumptions and constraints which will apply.
Initiative Schedule A set of tasks to support an ICT Initiative, their dependencies and assumptions for their use which is basic to understanding the total effort and true cost of an initiative.
The schedule will contain common tasks, dependencies and assumptions as well as those which are specific to an initiative. The ICT Planning Methodology contains a generic Initiative Schedule in Microsoft Project format which contains a superset of tasks to support a typical ICT initiative.
Initiative Schedule Template A generic initiative schedule prepared in Microsoft Project format which can be used to establish an Initiative Schedule and Total Cost. The template contains a superset of tasks to support a typical ICT initiative and represents QGCIO's view of the minimum set of tasks that need to be considered before and after those specific to the implementation of an initiative. Without consideration of such tasks the time and cost of initiatives will be underestimated.
In the ICT Planning Methodology the elements of the initiative Dependency Matrix are added to these standard supporting tasks to give a complete picture of the time and cost of the initiative.
Inline Linking Incorporating files, such as images, into web pages by linking to them on another website but displaying them inline. Inline linking makes it appear to the user that a file being displayed is part of the web-page when it in fact is owned and is hosted by another website.
Intangible Benefits Benefits that are difficult to quantify and measure reliably, such as improved staff morale and decision-making. In such cases proxy indicators of such benefits can be developed*
Integrated Client Management System (ICMS) Joint IM/IT initiative of the Department of Communities and Department of Child Safety run through Shared Information Solutions (SIS).
Integrated Justice Information Strategy (IJIS) The Integrated Justice Information Strategy (IJIS) is a whole-of-Government program designed to create a better coordinated criminal justice system. IJIS is facilitating the delivery of information across the criminal justice system, regardless of where the information is captured and held. The Department of Justice and Attorney-General host the initiative.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) A digital access network for voice and data. It is a system specifically designed for the delivery of data and an alternative to the analogue public switched telephone network for data delivery.
Integration A dimension in the assessment of Application Technical Condition in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures the capabilities of an Application to communicate/interact on a program-to-program basis with other previously independent Applications.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Integrity The assurance that information has been created, amended or deleted only by the intended authorised person and/or means and that the accuracy, and that the information complete and processing methods are safeguarded.
Integrity (in the context of ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology) A dimension in the assessment of Technical Condition for an Information Asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It deals with the extent to which checks are implemented and enforced to ensure that an Information Asset remains true to its source.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Interface A point of interconnection.
(See also "Program Interface", "User Interface")
Internet Publically addressed computer-based worldwide information network (including commercial and non-commercial connections).
Internet Browser A desktop application that retrieves, interprets, and displays World Wide Web data.
Internet Domain A domain is a subset of a network that makes up the Internet. Domain identifiers form part of unique Internet addresses (URL's) used to identify any one web page from those available on the Internet.
Internet Service Provider (ISP) A provider of internet access and bandwidth and related services to end users/organisations. An ISP may also provide help desk, web housing and e-mail services etc. to the end user/organisations. Internet peering is another form of ISP, either settlement based (commercial) or settlement-free (non-commercial).
Intranet The development of Internet technology behind a "firewall" within an organization.
Investment Objective An Investment Objective is defined as an organisational target that contributes to one or more of the Drivers. Investment Objectives should be a set of statements that define the required final outcome for the program or project. Each investment objective is likely to give rise to a number of benefits.
Inviolate Records Records that are time-bound and complete. To be inviolate, a record must be securely maintained to prevent alteration and unauthorised removal.
IP (Internet Protocol) Together with TCP, forms the basic protocol for message transfer over the Internet.
IQ (Information Queensland) A shared service initiative operated from the Department of Natural Resources and Water that delivers information from multiple Government departments in a smarter way, especially information about the physical, environmental, economic and social characteristics of Queensland.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) See "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)".
ISP (Internet Service Provider) See "Internet Service Provider (ISP)".
Issue A problem, query of substance, concern or change request that affects the program or project, and requires management intervention and action to resolve.
Issue Log A log of all issues and change requests raised during the program or project, showing details of each issue, its evaluation, what decisions about it have been made and its current status.
Issue Resolution Approach How the program and/or projects will handle issue resolution.
ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) See "Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)".
Key information Key information is any information that is of strategic significance to an agency, or to Government as a whole. It is a generic term which may be used to describe a set of data.
LAN (Local Area Network) See "Local Area Network (LAN)".
Last Known Version One of the Standard Information Chronometry types used to indicate the relevance of an Information Asset over time. An Information Asset exchanged in its most recent state - the most recent copy/image/current state held by an agency at an agreed point in time.
(See also "Information Chronometry")
Late Start The latest time a task can start before it causes a delay in the project end date.
Law Enforcement Agency This term includes the Queensland Police service, the Criminal Justice Commission and the Queensland Crime Commission.
Lead Agency (in the context of IS 42) For the purposes of IS 42, lead agency means the Department of Justice and the attorney General.
Legislation Acts as passed and subordinate legislation (such regulations) of the Queensland Parliament or other jurisdictions (such as the Australian Commonwealth) that are legally enforceable in the state of Queensland. Legislation contains a set of rules expressed as an obligation, an authorization, permission or a prohibition. In the context of the Queensland Government Information Architecture legislation is merely one type of constraint. Examples included: Water Act 2000, Financial Management Standard 1997 and Commonwealth Privacy Act 1988.
Legislative and Political Support A dimension in the assessment of the Future Business Value of an asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It deals with the degree to which an asset will be required to support future political or legislative requirements of the organisation.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Legislative or Political Impact A dimension in the assessment of the Business Impact of an asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. This dimension measures the consequences of system problems or outages of the Information Asset/Application/Technology in political terms (legislative impact and/or ministerial embarrassment).
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Lessons Learned Report A report which describes the lessons learned in undertaking the project and includes statistics from the quality control of the project's management products. It is approved by the Project Board, and then held centrally for the benefit of future project.
Leverage Stage The second stage of an asset lifecycle with uptake of the asset by one or two business units. Exposure of the asset is creating interest and a subsequent growing need, raising the importance of the asset to the business. Risk management is implemented and capital outlay continues with ongoing maintenance and functional improvement.
(See also "Asset Lifecycle")
Licence The grant of certain rights over an information asset, describing the purposes to which the information asset may be used and the conditions upon that use. This takes the form of a contract for licence in the case where the information asset is sourced from a non-government entity and as a memorandum of understanding when the information asset is sourced from another government department.
When an information asset is exchanged via an information service, the agency may choose to place a licence over the information asset provided o the consumer. Examples included: An agency may be granted the right to distribute verbatim copies of an information asset they sourced from another government department as long it is unchanged and the original creator is attributed.
Licensing A dimension in assessment of Information Technical Condition in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology, which deals with how well licensing constraints are managed for an Information Asset.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Licensing Costs Annual charge made by a vendor for the use of an Application or Technology by the agency.
Licensing/Subscription Costs Annual charge made by a vendor for the use of an Information Asset used by the agency.
Lifecycle Stages See "Asset Lifecycle Stages"
Lilac review of Premier's ICT briefing notes (Lilac) The Premier’s ICT briefing notes, known as ‘lilacs’, are provided to ensure the Premier is fully informed and prepared to make the best ICT investment decisions for Queensland Government.
Linear Distance Formula A mathematical formula which calculates the linear distance along the diagonal of the Priority Grid from the optimal score of 5 for Attractiveness and Achievability to zero. The closer the initiative to the optimum score the higher the priority.
Link The transmission path between any two interfaces of generic cabling. It excludes equipment and work area cables.
Local Area Network (LAN) A network connecting computers, usually within an organisation, and typically over wireline connections.
Maintenance The work needed to maintain an asset in a condition that enables it to reach its service potential. Maintenance does not extend an asset's useful life.
The maintenance of an Information Asset includes reviewing, editing, backup, disposal, decommissioning, and destruction/archiving.
For an Application or Technology maintenance involves problem identification and repair of any facility, equipment or asset involved in the running of the Application or technology. It does not include any work associated with the development of new functionality or performance enhancement.
Maintenance (in the context of ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology A dimension in the assessment of Technical Condition of an asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology, which measures the speed and ease with which the asset can be supported and administered. It takes into consideration the existence of properly documented procedures and the effort involved in training appropriately skilled support staff.
Assessing the maintainability of an Information Asset involves consideration of the consistency with which processes and controls are applied to the modification of the asset and the availability of resources to complete the modifications.
Assessing the maintainability of an Application or Technology asset involves consideration of the activities associated with problem identification and repair, and installation of fix releases and patches. It involves the quality of the releases/patches, including documentation and version control, as well as the time, effort and level of skill required to complete this work satisfactorily.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Maintenance Costs The costs associated with the maintenance of any facility, equipment or asset. It includes the cost of support staff involved in problem identification and repair. It does not include the project costs associated with the development of new functionality and performance enhancement.
(See also "Maintenance")
Managed Operating Environment (MOE) The collective set of both human and technology based policies and processes, which together describe the management framework with which the organisation procures, provisions, maintains and disposes of assets that make up the desktop environment.
Management by Exception A technique by which variances from plan (including benefits realised) that exceed a pre-set control limit (e.g. by ± 10%) are escalated for management action*
Managing Successful Programs (MSP) Developed by the United Kingdom Office of Commerce, MSP is a program management methodology that comprises a set of principles and processes for use when managing a program. The Queensland Program Management Methodology is based on MSP.
Mandate The endorsed or authorised driver for change in the Agency. The trigger for a program from the Agency's Senior Management (or a CEO Committee) who are sponsoring the program. The trigger for a project from the Program Manager or other Senior Management - see Project Mandate.
Mandatory Principles Of any information standard, means the principles stated in the information to be the mandatory principles of the standard.
Manufacturers Accreditation Manufacturers certify that installing personnel maintain a standard of installation that would uphold the quality and performance capability of the cabling infrastructure being installed. Minimum standards for accreditation for such training are as follows:

Formal instruction including installation practice.;
Certification of an individual on successful completion of the instruction; and
Manufacturers are to provide periodic follow-up training.
Meaningful Records Meaningful records may be understood in the context of the processes and business for which they are created and in which they are used.
Measurable Benefit This aspect of performance is currently being measured or an appropriate measure could be defined and implemented. But, it is currently not known by how much performance will change when the project is finished.
Medium Medium means the physical object in which information is recorded or carried. For example, paper files, computer printouts, photographs, microfilm, plans, cards, floppy disks, compact disks and magnetic computer tapes.
Meta Model (in the context of the GEA) Meta Model
(in the context of the GEA)
Metadata Data about a particular information asset. Specifically the contextual information about an information asset upon which the asset was established and will be managed on an ongoing basis.
Metadata may include information about ownership, the applicable constraints, performance measures that will be or are being applied to the information asset.
As contextual information metadata assists in ensuring the authenticity, reliability, usability, integrity and accessibility of digital records over time. Examples included: The AGLS record associated with a particular document, including the particular QKey (Keyword AAA) terms assigned to the document.
The use of the term metadata within the information architecture is purposefully very specific and encompasses only contextual metadata given the level of abstraction for this model. More broad definitions of metadata include three key concepts. Namely the contextual metadata, plus the metadata schemes (such as classifying values used) and the metadata schema – all of which are present within the abstract model in their component parts.
Methodology A defined set of processes, tools and guidelines.
Metric Quantitative measure used to assess the state of product, project or program.
Metro One of the possible choices for Agency Coverage in the Application and Technology Registers. Refers to an Application or a Technology which is used only in the Brisbane metropolitan head office(s) of agency as opposed to the agency's regional offices.
(See also "Agency coverage")
Microsoft Technical Training Agreement (MTTA) A panel of 4 vendors (EXCOM, New Horizons, Dimensions Data and IT Training Solutions) which was established to allow agencies to purchase Microsoft technical training.
Milestone A point in time when a specific product or capability is available or a significant event will occur.
Modifier One of the possible Roles of an agency in relation to an Information Asset. It covers the situation where an agency obtains information from a source and modifies that information for its own purposes. Also where an agency accepts updates to its own copy of the Information Asset.
(See also "Role")
Modular Socket Connector An eight way modular connector conforming to IEC 603-7 specification. Often incorrectly termed an RJ connector. Also called a telecommunications outlet/connector.
MOE (Managed Operating Environment) See "Managed Operating Environment (MOE)".
Moments One of the three archetypes of the Queensland Government Information Portfolio Framework, describing those Information Assets which arise in order to track or monitor moments, periods or events that occur over time. Essentially, this type of information is focused on occurrences which must be tracked for business reasons or represent a specific point in the evolution of some “thing” of business significance. For example, in order to enable business activity monitoring to assess conformance with performance measures, an agency may capture information about the execution of key processes, such as the number of transactions performed.
The framework domains which relate to Moments are:

Events
Interactions
Services
Cases
Motivators One of the three archetypes of the Queensland Government Information Portfolio Framework, describing those Information Assets which are related to motivation or reasoning (i.e., they contain information not in the form of an observation and measurement of a real world state, but information in the form of potential, imagined or desired states). These types of information assets include information generated through the application of knowledge (experience), imagination and intellectual ideas (concepts). For example, Risk Management information is concerned with potential hazards, their likelihood and consequences. These may not be actual real world instances as they may never actually occur. Hence they are merely “imagined” or “scenario based” instances that may come to exist in certain circumstances based on experience of the people involved. However, this does not make its classification any less critical.
The framework therefore contains a number of domains which relate to Motivators. Specifically:

Controls
Responsibilities
Plans
MSP (Managing Successful Programmes) See "Managing Successful Programs (MSP)".
MTTA (Microsoft Technical Training Agreement) See "Microsoft Technical Training Agreement (MTTA)".
Multimedia Using a combination of text, graphics, video, animation and sound to present information.
Multi-tenanting Multi-tenanting refers to using shared resources for multiple organisations. Specifically, multi-tenancy refers to the principle where a single instance of software serves multiple organisations (tenants). Multi-tenancy is contrasted with a multi-instance architecture where separate software instances (or hardware systems) are set up for different organisations. With a multi-tenant architecture, software is designed (for a given technology layer) to virtually partition and segregate its data and configuration, and each organisation works with a customised virtual instance. Control and management of shared resources are also a feature of multi-tenanting systems. An example is software that allows organisations to use the same IP address space on the same hardware without conflict.
MUTO (Multi-user Telecommunications Outlet) A grouping, in one location, of several telecommunications outlet/connectors.
National Security Information

Any official resource including equipment that records information about or is associated with, Australia’s:

security form espionage, sabotage, politically motivated violence, promotion of communal violence, attacks on Australia’s defence system or acts of foreign interference;
Defence plans and operations;
International relations, that relate to significant political and economic relations with international organisations and foreign governments; or
National interest, that relates to economic, scientific or technological matters vital to Australia’s stability and integrity.
Navigation Bars A navigation bar is a collection of links to the most important parts of a document site.
Network Diagram A graphic tool for depicting the sequence and relationships between tasks in a project. PERT Diagram, Critical Path Diagram, Arrow Diagram, Precedence Diagram are all forms of network diagrams.
Network monitoring system Describes the use of a system that constantly monitors a computer network for slow or failing systems and that notifies the network administrator in cases of outages via email, pager or other alarms.
Network Services Network Services incorporates network assets (H/W and S/W), technologies and associated services used in the provision of LANs, MANs and WANs. Technologies include (but not limited to) routers, switches, load balances, firewalls, application acceleration, Intrusion detection/prevention, network access control, carriage services (eg xDSL, Frame Relay, MPLS, Ethernet). Services refers to those functions performed in the lifecycle management of the networking environment such as:

requirements gathering & analysis,
planning and design,
procurement
deployment
operational monitoring and management
technical support
Networks Include communications capability that enables one user to connect to another user or system.
Non-BAU (Non-Business as Usual) See "ICT Expenditure" definition.
Non-metro One of the possible choices for Agency Coverage in the Application and Technology Registers. Refers to an Application or a Technology used only in the regional office(s) of agency.
(See also "Agency coverage")
Non-National Security Information Any official information asset that requires increased protection and does not meet the definition of national security information. Most often this will be information about:

Government or agency business, whose compromise could affect the governments capacity to make decisions or operate, the publics confidence in government, the stability of the market place and so on;
Commercial interests, whose compromise could affect the competitive process and provide the opportunity for unfair advantage;
Law enforcement operations, whose compromise could hamper or render useless crime prevention strategies or particular investigations or adversely affect personal safety; or
Personal information that is required to be protected under the provisions of the Government’s Information Privacy Principles (IS42), the Public Records Act 2002, or other legislation.
Non-Government Information Information provided by a resource other than Qld State or Federal Government entity.
Number of Data Instances (Information Assets) The estimated number of instances that form the Information Asset. For example, an electronically-dependent Information Asset may have data stored in multiple tables, such as Customer, Services and Transactions. If the Information Asset to be captured is “Service Transactions”, the estimated number of data instances would equate to the number of data records stored in the Transactions table.
(See also "Data Instance")
Number of Instances (Technology Assets) Number of instances deployed of either software licenses or physical hardware items, irrespective of whether the environment is a development, test or production environment. The number of instances of a technology hardware asset is typically the number of physical items deployed. The number of instances of software assets is usually the number of licenses deployed. Refer to the Guideline - Reporting Technology Instances for more assistance.
Number of Users (in the context of Applications) The number of direct users exposed to the Application via its native user interface (not those who access the functionality through an application programming interface or through web services).
It does not equal the number of concurrent users possible.
If the Application's primary purpose is to provide online services, it can be difficult to estimate the number of users. In this case the following indicators may be used: Queensland-wide and Australia-wide.
Number of Users (in the context of Technologies) The number of users impacted by the Technology. For example, if Microsoft's BizTalk is used to support an Application used by all agency staff, the number of users for BizTalk would equate to the number of staff in the agency.
Objectives See "Business Objectives".
Object Identifiers (OIDs) Form of a worldwide unambiguous identification based on a hierarchical tree structure and independent hierarchical registration authorities.
Observable Benefit By use of agreed criteria, specific stakeholders will decide, based upon their experience or judgement, to what extent the benefit has been realised. A client satisfaction survey is a typical example of an observable means of benefits measurement.
OCC (Online and Communications Council) See "Online and Communications Council (OCC)."
O/F (Optical Fibre) See "Optical fibre (O/F)".
Off-Specification Something which should be provided by the project, but currently is not (or is forecast not to be provided). This might be a missing product or a product not meeting its specification. Initiated by the supplier creating the product.
Office Application Suite An integrated set of office applications including: a word processor, spreadsheet, presentations package and a low-end database.
One time password An authentication mechanism that requires a new password every time a user authenticates themselves. This is usually achieved through use of a hardware device that generates a unique password to be entered each time the application is accessed.
Online Use of the Internet for information service delivery and/or collaboration with other government agencies and organizations external to government.
Online and Communications Council (OCC) The peak ministerial forum across governments for consultation and coordination of information and communication issues of a national strategic importance.
Open Source Software (OSS) Software whose computer code is available to be inspected. OSS generally has licensing restrictions.
Operating system (OS) The master set of software that controls the overall operation of the computer and facilitates the running of application software.
Operational The lowest level of the standard decision-making hierarchy used to categorise the Initial Intention of an Information Asset. It describes decisions made in relation to, or as part of, an activity within a single operational period of typically no more than 12 months.
(See also "Initial Intention")
Operational costs - Internal The costs resulting from the day-to-day provision of an asset.
For an Information Asset it includes the number of information support staff, operations staff, application and storage costs.
For an Application or Technology, it includes the day-to-day cost of operation of any facility, equipment or asset involved in the running of that Application or Technology, such as electricity, air-conditioning, floor space, technical staff, support and operations staff provided internally by the organisation.
It does not include depreciation, licensing, or maintenance. Operational costs relating to services provided by external parties other than other Queensland Government agencies should be collected as operational costs - external.
Operational costs - External The costs resulting from the day-to-day provision of an asset provided by external service providers or contractors either on-site or off-site.
For an Information Asset it includes the number of external or contracted information support staff, operations staff, application staff and storage costs.
For an Application or Technology, it includes the day-to-day cost of an operation of any facility, equipment or asset involved in the running of that Application or Tecnology typically covered by a facilities management or service level agreement with a contractor or vendor.
Operational Environment The information systems are where information processing is carried out.
Operational Excellence One of the three disciplines in the Treacy-Wiersema Value-Discipline Model in which an organisation may focus its energies. This discipline is characterised by low or lowest price and hassle-free service. Market leaders with this focus maximise the efficiency of their operations. Examples include K-Mart and McDonalds.
(See also "Treacy-Wiersema Value-Discipline Model")
Operational Impact A dimension in the assessment of the Business Impact of an asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It deals with the degree of disruption to the delivery of an agency's services caused by the unscheduled failure or inadequacy of an Information asset, Application or Technology.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Operational Performance Grid One of the ICT Asset Assessment grid models of the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology, which assesses the performance of individual assets based on the reasonableness of the costs associated with delivering and maintaining the asset (Scaled Cost) given the current significance of the asset in terms of the impact of any failure (Business impact).
Assessments fall into the following quadrants in descending order of reasonableness:

Maintain - high business impact with low costs
Reengineer - high business impact with high costs
Tolerate - low business impact with low costs
Eliminate - low business impact with high costs

(See also "ICT Asset Assessment Grid Model")
Optical fibre (O/F) Optical fibres carry digital information that has been converted to light at very high speeds, at low error rates and over very long distances.
Optimise A Generic Asset Management Action for an asset based on its positioning in each of the ICT Asset Assessment Grid Models of the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. This action would be considered for an asset which has high current or future business value but which requires rationalisation of its costs and/or improvement in its Technical Condition to reach its full potential.
(See also "Asset Management Strategy")
Optimise Stage The third stage of the Asset Lifecycle when there is widespread uptake of the asset across the agency. Business units indicate high degrees of dependencies on the asset and optimisation of the asset is crucial to meeting corporate goals. Strategies are in place for sharing at cross-agency level and possible further exploitation.
(See also "Asset Lifecycle")
Organisational Innovation and Growth A dimension in the assessment of the Future Business Value of an asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It deals with the degree to which the asset permits the organisation to respond to changes in the environment and the needs of stakeholders. Also takes into account the immediacy of the response.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
OS (Operating system) See "Operating system (OS)".
OSS (Open Source Software) See "Open Source Software (OSS)".
Other Costs The costs associated with the asset that can’t be reasonably identified as operational, depreciation, licensing or development and enhancement costs.
Outcome The result of change, normally affecting real-world behaviour and/or circumstances. Outcomes are desired when a change is conceived. Outcomes are achieved as a result of projects or activities undertaken to effect the change i.e. on the creation of capability that has been implemented into an operational context. Outcomes differ from benefits in that benefits are the measurable, financial, quantifiable or observable difference between the initial state and the outcome.
Outputs Outputs are goods, services or conditions produced by projects and activities and are delivered to a recipient within or outside the organisation. Also known as products, they can be physical products: reports, letters, briefing documents, records, magnetic media, notices, and physical objects or the result of service provision.
Outsourcing The purchase of labour or services from a source outside government.
Owner (in the context of Information Assets) Information as an asset is owned by the State of Queensland [1].
The term owner in the Strategic Direction is the recognised officer who is identified as having the authority and accountability under legislation, regulation or policy for the collection of information assets on behalf of the State of Queensland. Information owners define the policy which governs the information assets of an agency, for example determining the security classification of information assets.
An owner will often delegate the operational responsibility for information assets to a custodian, who applies controls that reflect the owner’s expectations and instructions such as ensuring proper quality, security, integrity, correctness, consistency, privacy, confidentiality and accessibility of the information assets. /

[1] It is well understood that within government all legal ownership and associated rights and entitlements are vested in the State of Queensland. However, practically, the State can only act through the officers of the legislature, judiciary or the public service. Indeed, at an intellectual property level beneficial use delegations do not apply when the public entity represents the State of Queensland and has the power to deal with assets under its enabling legislation. That is, the public sector owner is deemed to be acting as the State in relation to assets. For this reason the term owner for the purpose of describing the information architecture is deemed to be the officer through whom the State, as the ultimate owner, is acting.
Parametric Estimating Estimating using an algorithm in which parameters that represent different attributes of the project are used to calculate project effort, cost, and/or duration. Parametric estimating is usually used in top-down Estimating.
Password An authentication mechanism in which a secret series of characters is used to assist in the authentication of the assertion that a person has a right to use a particular User-ID, and consequently enables a user to access a file, computer or program.
The effectiveness of the technique depends upon the assumption that the password is known only by the appropriate entity (and, in less secure schemes, also by the system conducting the authentication).
If a password is disclosed or shared, accountability is compromised.
Synonyms/similar concepts are Passphrase, Personal Identification Number (PIN).
PDF Portable Document format
Percentage of Annual Fleet Turnover This attribute is applicable to Technology hardware for which fleet turnover is applicable. This attribute is not applicable for Technology software. It is the proportion of the fleet which is replaced annually under a capital management plan.
(See also "Fleet Turnover")
Performance (Asset management) A dimension in the assessment of Application and Technology Technical Condition in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures how well and how speedily an Application or Technology works in all situations including at peak load.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Performance management The management and evaluation of information on the efficiency and effectiveness of whole-of-Government direction, agency business direction and agency service delivery to improve accountability of government, to inform policy development and implementation and to create value to clients, stakeholders and the community.
Personal information for the purposes of all Information Privacy Principles (IPP) other than IPP 6&7 Information or an opinion (including information or opinion forming part of a data-base), whether true or not, and whether recorded in a material form or not, about an individual whose identity is apparent, or can reasonably be ascertained from that information or opinion.
Personal information for the purposes of IPP 6&7 This information is limited to information concerning an individual's "personal affairs" as the phrase "personal affairs" has been interpreted in the freedom of information Act 1992.
PERT Diagram A type of network diagram deriving its name from the PERT technique. PERT stands for Program Evaluation Review Technique. A PERT technique can be used to schedule, organise, and coordinate tasks within a project. The term is often used as a synonym for network diagram.
Physical Security The means used to provide physical protection of resources against deliberate or accidental threats.
PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) See "Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)".
Planning The establishment of objectives, and the formulation, evaluation and selection of the policies, strategies, tactics and action required to achieve them. (Source: CIMA, Management Accounting Official Terminology)*
PMBOK The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) is a document published by the Project Management Institute of the USA. It provides a basic reference for anyone interested in the profession of Project Management. PMBOK specifically addresses nine basic Project Management Knowledge Areas - Project Integration Management, Project Scope Management, Project Time Management, Project Cost Management, Project Quality Management, Project Human Resource Management, Project Communications Management, Project Risk Management, and Project Procurement Management. The information within PMBOK complements the Queensland Government Project Management Methodology.
Point-in-Time One of the Standard Information Chronometry types used to indicate the relevance of an Information Asset over time. It describes an asset which is exchanged on the request of a consumer and specifies the date and time (or other versioning identification) upon which the Information Asset is to be retrieved.
This class of information is often used in response to a query or in order to make a decision within a business process (for example, the validity of a qualification at the start of a year, the list of illnesses recorded for a given patient at the 30 June 2007, version 3 of a particular report).
Point-in-time information when sent from one agency to another should be treated as ephemeral and not incorporated into the repositories of the consuming agency.
(See also "Information Chronometry")
Policy Sets outs a government plan or course of action intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other matters relative to a particular purpose. A policy, like legislation, contains a set of rules expressed as an obligation, an authorisation, permission or a prohibition.
Pornography The explicit description or exhibition of obscene literature, art or photography, generally intended to stimulate erotic rather than aesthetic or emotional feelings.
Portability A dimension in the assessment of an Application's Technical Condition in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures how readily an Application can be used in a different technology environment other than the one in which it was created without requiring major rework. In general, programs that adhere to standard program interfaces are portable and need only be recompiled for the operating system to which they are being ported.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Portfolio A grouping of an organisation’s projects and programs. Portfolios can be managed at an organisational or functional level. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Portfolio Management The selection, prioritisation and control of an organisation’s projects and programs in line with its strategic objectives and capacity to deliver. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Post Project Review One or more reviews held after project closure to determine if the expected benefits have been obtained, and the Project Business Case met.
PPP (3P) Acronyms used to refer to Projects, Programs and Portfolios. Also used to refer to Public Private Partnerships (in procurement) and Population, Participation and Productivity (in economics).
Predecessor Task A task (or activity) that must be started or finished before another task or milestone can be performed.
Premier Support Service (PSS) This is a service provided by Microsoft to the Queensland Government for the support of its software.
Preservation Preservation involves storing, protecting and maintaining records.
PRINCE2 (Project in Controlled Environments) Developed by the Unitied Kingdom Office of Commerce, PRINCE2 is a project management methodology. It covers the management, control and organisation of a project. The Queensland Government Project Management Methodology is based on PRINCE2.
Priority Grid A visual mechanism for understanding the priority of an initiative relative to all other initiatives using the assessments of its Attractiveness and Achievability. Where the initiative falls on the grid will determine whether the organisation should commit to the initiative/drop the initiative or further investigate the benefits relative to the resourcing required.
The quadrants of the grid are as follows:

Drop - will deliver low level of return but appear difficult to implement;
Distraction - will deliver low benefits but appear easy to implement;
Prove - likely to deliver high level of benefits but will be difficult to implement; and
Commit - likely to deliver high level of benefits and easy to implement.
Probability The likelihood of a specific outcome, measured by the ratio of specific outcomes to the total number of possible outcomes.
Process A series of steps or actions performed to bring about a particular outcome, in terms of information to be gathered, decisions to be made and results which must be achieved.
Process Register See "Business Process Register".
Producer This role represents the creator(s) of a document which is the subject of a Quality Review. Typically it will be filled by the person who has produced the product, or who led the team responsible.
Product (in the context of change portfolio) Any input to or output from a project (tangible or measurable). The Project Management methodology distinguishes between Management Products (which are produced as part of the management of the project), and Business Products (which are those products which make up the final deliverable/s). Quality products (which are produced for or by the quality process) are a type of management product. A product may itself be a collection of other products. Also used to refer to the project’s material outcome - service, event, or material object.
Product (in the context of information management maturity) Any tangible or measurable input to or output from a process activity. A product may itself be a collection of other products, e.g. schedules, policies, guidelines, asset register.
Product Breakdown Structure A hierarchical decomposition of all the products to be produced during a plan.
Product Checklist A list of the major products of a plan, plus key dates in their delivery.
Product Description A description of a product's purpose, composition, derivation and quality criteria. It is produced at planning time, as soon as the need for the product is identified.
Product Flow Diagram A diagram showing the sequence of production and interdependencies of the products listed in a Product Breakdown Structure.
Product Leadership One of the three disciplines identified in the Treacy-Wiersema Value-Discipline model. It is characterised by products that are simply the best in their market and highly valued by customers. Examples include Mercedes-Benz and Sony.
(See also "Treacy-Wiersema Value-Discipline Model")
Profile A Profile is a standalone document that can be read independently of any of the other planning documents and is also used as input for other activities in the ICT planning process. It summarises the previous information collection and analysis into a document which can be presented back to the business for their consideration and thus provides a tool to gather business validation for the previous activities.
(See also "Business Profile", "Information Profile", "Application Profile", "Technology Profile")
Program A group of related projects and change management activities that together achieve beneficial change for an organisation. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Program Assurance Independent assessment and confirmation that the program as a whole, or any aspects of it, are on track, applying relevant practices and procedures, and that the projects, activities and business rationale remain aligned to the program's objectives.
Program Board A group or committee that may be established to assist with the direction setting and leadership of a program. The Sponsoring Group may form a Program Board, which would be chaired by the Senior Responsible Owner.
Program Brief An outline description of the program's objectives, desired benefits, risks, costs and timeframes.
Program Business Case A document aggregating the specific program information on overall costs, the anticipated benefit realisation, the timeframe, and the risk profile of the program. Provides the justification for the program i.e. the expected benefits outweigh the estimated costs and risks; or meets strategic goals.
Program Definition The collection of information defining the program covering: Vision Statement, Blueprint, Program Business Case, Program Organisation Structure, Project List, Benefit Profiles, Stakeholder Map.
Program Interface The specific method prescribed by a computer operating system or by an application program by which an application program can communicate with the operating system or another application.
Program Management The coordinated management of projects and change management activities to achieve beneficial change. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Program Manager The role responsible for day-to-day management of the program, including the coordination of projects and change management activities. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Program of Work

See "Forward Work Plan".
Program Office The function providing the information hub to the program and its delivery objectives. Provides assistance to program role holders. Often project support is contained within the Program Office.
Program Organisation How the program will be managed throughout its lifecycle, the roles and responsibilities of individuals involved in the program, and personnel management or Human Resources arrangements.
Program Plan A comprehensive document scheduling the program's projects and activities, their costs, resources, risks and transitional activities, together with monitoring and control activities.
Project A unique, transient endeavour undertaken to achieve planned objectives. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Project Assurance The Project Board's responsibilities to assure itself that the project is being conducted correctly (may also refer to the roles assigned to the individuals outside the Board who assist the Board with the assurance role).
Project Board The decision making body for the project. Comprised of a Project Executive/Sponsor, Senior User and Senior Supplier, the Project Board makes decisions in regards to project viability and issues as they are escalated. They provide guidance to the Project Manager and communicate project status to corporate or program management. The Project Board is not a democracy controlled by votes. The Executive is the key decision maker because they are ultimately responsible to the business. They are supported by the Senior User and the Senior Supplier.
Project Brief A description of what the project is to do; a refined and extended version of the Project Mandate, which has been agreed by the Project Board and which is input to Project Initiation. Also may be known as the Project Charter.
Project Business Case Information which describes the justification for setting up and continuing a project. It provides the reasons (answers the question 'why?') for the project. It is updated at key points throughout the project.
Project Closure Notification Advice from the Project Manager to inform everyone involved in the project that the project resources can be disbanded and support services, such as space, equipment and access, demobilised.
Sponsor/Sponsorship An important senior management role. The sponsor is accountable for ensuring that the work is governed effectively and delivers the objectives that meet identified needs. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Project Initiation Document (PID) A logical document the purpose of which is to bring together the key information needed to start the project on a sound basis; and to convey that information to all concerned with the project. The Project Initiation Document is a contract between the Project Board and the Project Manager so that there is a common understanding of: the reasons for doing the project, how, when and what key products are to be delivered, scope, constraints, roles, quality requirements, risks, project control procedures, reporting information and the next stage plan.
Project Issue A term used to cover both general issues and change requests raised during the project. Project Issues can be about anything to do with the project. They cover questions, suggestions, Requests For Change and Off-Specifications.
Project List A list of all of the program's projects and activities that together will deliver the required 'future state' described in the Blueprint and hence achieve the capabilities expressed in the Vision Statement. Also known as the Project Portfolio.
Project Management The application of processes, methods, knowledge, skills and experience to achieve the project objectives. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Project Management Team A term to represent the entire management structure of Project Board, Project Manager, plus any Team Managers and project assurance roles.
Project Manager The person given the authority and responsibility to manage the project on a day-to-day basis to deliver the required products within the constraints agreed with the Project Board.
Project Mandate The direction given externally to the project, which forms the terms of reference and is used to start-up the project.
Project Office A group set up to provide certain administrative services to the Project or Team Managers. Often the group provides its services to many projects. The Project Office may be a component of a Program Office.
Project Plan A high-level plan showing the major products of the project, when they will be delivered and at what cost. An Initial Project Plan is presented as part of the Project Initiation Document. This is revised in later versions as information on actual progress appears. It is a major control document for the Project Board to measure actual progress against expectations.
Project Quality Plan The definition of key quality criteria, quality control and audit processes to be applied to project management and technical work in the project. It forms part of the Project Initiation Document.
Project Records A collection of all approved management, specialist and quality products and other material, which is necessary to provide an auditable record of the project.
Project Start-Up Notification Advice to everyone to be involved with the project that the project is about to start and requesting any required project support services.
Protection A dimension in the assessment of the Technical Condition of an Information Asset or a Technology in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It deals with the extent of security measures in place to protect an asset from malicious modifications leading to information loss and/or corruption.
For a Technology, assessment involves measuring the level of protection provided for its users. It includes consideration of both its official security certification (gained under an official accreditation system) with an assessment of the comprehensiveness and timeliness of its security patch service.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Prove A quadrant of the Initiative Priority Grid containing initiatives which have a score of high Attractiveness but low Achievability. The organisation should investigate these initiatives further because of their complexity and resource requirements. If it can be shown that the risks inherent in the initiative can be addressed, the organisation may commit to the initiative.
(See also "Initiative Priority Grid")
PSS (Premier Support Service) See "Premier Support Service (PSS)".
Public Authority As defined by the Public Records Act 2002, Schedule 2.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) A secure method of exchanging information. PKI is a combination of software, encryption technologies and services that enables organizations to protect the security of their electronic communications and on-line transactions.
Public Records As defined by the Public Records Act 2002, Schedule 2.
Published A Content Type for an Information Asset. See "Published Content".
(See also "Content Type")
Published Content Unstructured content assembled from its component pieces, into a desired format and disseminated to a wide target audience. Published content is only changed through either a “replacement” publication process or removal of access to the content.
Unlike Authored Content, Published Content is typically less restricted in its distribution and often exposed to public or external access. Examples included: Smart Directions PDF available from www.qgcio.qld.gov.au, Intranet sites, Internet sites/content, Government Gazette, Re-prints of legislation and Brochures on changes to road rules.
QCISP Queensland Communication and Information Strategic Plan (1999 - 2004)
Quality The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service which bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs.
Quality Assurance (QA) Making sure standards and procedures are effective and that they are complied with. Note, in some organisations QA is used to refer to the quality control function.
Quality Control (QC) Making sure deliverables comply with quality criteria.
Quality of service (QoS) An agreed or contracted level of service between a service customer and a service provider.
Quality Log Contains all planned and completed quality activities. The Quality Log is used by the Project Manager and Project Assurance as part of reviewing progress.
Quality Management Approach How the program will achieve the required levels of quality in the way the program is managed and directed, and how the program's deliverables will be assessed for 'fitness for purpose'.
Quality Management System The complete set of quality standards, procedures and responsibilities for a site or Agency.
Quality Review Used where quality criteria are subjective rather than objective. These products are likely to be documents. A Quality Review is an inspection with a specific structure, defined roles and procedure designed to ensure a product’s completeness and adherence to standards. The participants are drawn from those with an interest in the product and those with the necessary skills to review its correctness. An example of the checks made by a Quality Review is 'does the product match the Quality Criteria in the Product Description?
Quantifiable Benefit Sufficient evidence exists or can be obtained to forecast (from the current baseline position) how much improvement/benefit should result from the changes.
Queensland Government Chief Information Office (QGCIO) The QGCIO consists of the following units:

Enterprise Architecture & Strategy (EA&S)
ICT Policy and Investment Review (IP&IR)
Telecommunications and ICT Industry Liaison (T&IL)
Successful Delivery and Portfolio Analysis (SD&PA)
Implementation & Agency Support (I&AS)

The QGCIO is managed by the Queensland Government Chief Information Officer.
Queensland Government Chief Procurement Office (QGCPO) QGCPO has responsibility for whole-of-Government ICT commodity purchases of items such as multi-function devices and desktop printers (business machines), desktops and laptops. The QGCPO also has responsibility for the management of the GITC. The QGCPO is managed by the Queensland Government Chief Procurement Officer.
Queensland Government Chief Technology Officer (QGCTO) Unit within CITEC aimed at ensuring that the Government’s investment in technology and applications is optimised to meet information management and integrated service delivery outcomes. The QGCTO incorporates the following units: Technology Architecture and Solutions, Strategic Supply and Assets, and Solutions Integration. The QGCTO is managed by the Queensland Government Chief Technology Officer.
RACI RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed. A RACI diagram is used to describe the roles and responsibilities of various teams or people in delivering a project. It is especially useful in clarifying roles and responsibilities in cross functional/cross Agency projects and initiatives.
Random Access Memory (RAM) The main system memory in a computer, used for the OS, application programs, and data.
Reasonable Access Reasonable access means there are no significant geographical, economic or social barriers created by the government to limit access by citizens.
Reclassification of media Reclassification is an administrative decision to change the classification of media, based on an assessment of relevant issues including the consequences of damage from unauthorised disclosure or misuse, the effectiveness of any sanitisation procedure used, and the intented destination of the media.
Recordkeeping Recordkeeping is the act of making and keeping records.
Recordkeeping Meta Data Recordkeeping metadata is information describing the context, content and structure of records and their management through time.
Recordkeeping Systems A recordkeeping system is the interaction of technology, people, principles, methods, processes and information systems that capture, maintain and provide access to records over time.
Record(s) A record is recorded information in any form, including data in computer systems created or received and maintained by an organization or person in the transaction of business or the conduct of affairs and kept as evidence of such activity. (Aust. Standard AS4390))
Records are information objects that document business activities and transactions. To be regarded as evidence a record must be complete.
Records Continuum The records continuum is the whole extent of a record's existence. Recordkeeping across the continuum requires a consistent and coherent regime of management processes from the time of the creation of records (and before creation in the design of recordkeeping systems), through to the on going preservation and use of records as archives.
Records Lifecycle The records lifecycle is the model of records management and archival management which describes the stages through which a record is said to pass during its "life", often using "birth to death" analogies.
Records Management Records management is the corporate function of managing records to meet operational business needs, accountability requirement and community expectations. Records management includes the systematic capture, control, maintenance, distribution, access and control of records. Records management is primarily concerned with capturing complete, accurate and reliable evidence of organisational activity for current business purposes.
Records Retention Records retention describes the act of the keeping of records for as long as they have administrative, business, legislative and/or cultural value.
Records System Electronic systems or applications used for creating, maintaining, controlling and storing records.
Referencer One of the possible Roles of an Information Asset. It describes information from a source outside the agency which is referenced by its ID. Only the ID is stored locally so the agency only refers to information from the source using the ID and does not update the information asset itself.
(See also "Role")
Registration Registration is a process that results in the creation of a record of registration, and the establishment of an associated identity. The record is usually allocated an identifier that is unique within the domain of the issuer. The registration process may include identification of the client, wherein the validity of claimed attributes and evidence of identity is assessed. Depending on the domain, a number of attributes may be required to distiguish an identity uniquely eg. the identifer set name: name, date and place of birth is commonly used to distinguish human identity within large domains. Registration may also involve the issuing of a credential to the applicant.
Multiple enrolments may occur after a user has been registered. Although 'registration' and 'enrolment' are sometimes used as synonyms, a distinction is being drawn here between the two terms.
Reliable Records Reliable records may be trusted as credible evidence of the transactions they document.
Replace A Generic Asset Management Action for an asset based on its positioning in each of the grid models of the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. This delineates an asset with limited life. Although it may have a high current business impact, it is in poor technical condition and will not be able to offer business value in the future.
(See also "Asset Management Strategy")
Request for Change A means of proposing a modification to the current specification of the product. It is one type of Project Issue. See Change Request.
Request For Information (RFI) An RFI is a formal notice to suppliers indicating that information is being sought as to the goods, services and/or equipment that may be available to meet a specified need. An RFI is used by agencies to assess the capability of the market to meet a specified need and to assist in selecting a short-list of the most suitable suppliers.
Request for Offer (RFO) An RFO is a formal notice to suppliers indicating that proposals/solutions (incorporating the provision of goods, services and equipment) are being sought to meet a detailed specification of agency requirements. An RFO is used by agencies to select the supplier most able to meet the specified need.
Request for Comment (RFC) An Information Standard is issued as a Request for Comment (RFC) so that there can be consultation on the working draft.
Requirement A need arising from an agency's business activity, or from support of business activity, where such activity is intended to fulfil the purpose of the agency as defined by legislation, central agency requirements or ministerial direction.
Importantly requirements within the Information Architecture are derived from the Business Architecture of an agency or government. Examples included: Maritime safety strategies required under the Transport Operations (Maritime Safety) Act 1994 to assist in managing maritime transport operations, The state wide digital cadastral dataset required under the Survey and Mapping Infrastructure Act 2003 to support the effective identification and valuation of land and The list of registered Nurses required by the Nursing Act 1992 to ensure integrity of the health profession.
Requirements A description of the user’s needs and a statement of detailed product objectives that describes the features and functions and performance constraints to be delivered in the product. The requirements provide the basis for accepting the product. Also referred to as Specification.
Research/Explore A Generic Asset Management Action for an asset based on its positioning in each of the grid models of the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. This action would be considered for an asset in good technical condition with low costs but which has question marks over its future value to the organisation.
(See also "Asset Management Strategy")
Residual Risk The remaining level of risk after all risk treatment measures have been taken.
Resource Dependency A dependency between tasks in which the tasks share the same resources and therefore cannot be worked on simultaneously. Resource dependent tasks can be scheduled at the same time but are limited by the availability of the shared resources.
Resource Levelling Resource levelling is the part of the scheduling process in which the start and end dates of tasks are driven by resource limitations (e.g. limited availability of resources or difficult-to-manage resource levels). Among the scheduling objectives, is to ensure that resources are not overburdened (don’t schedule more resources for a period than are available) and that (as much as possible) there are not significant peaks and valleys in the resource schedule. There are two outcomes from resource levelling - a) if there is affixed end-date, additional resources may need to be allocated; or b) if the end-date is not fixed, but resources are fixed, the duration may need to be extended.
Resource Management Approach Description of the resource requirements for the program, competing demands identification and how they will be managed.
Resource(s) Any tangible support such as, a person, tool, supply item or facility used in the performance of a project.
Resources Description Framework (RDF) RDF integrates a variety of web-based metadata activities including sitemaps, content ratings, stream channel definitions, search engine data collection (web crawling), digital library collections, and distributed authoring, using XML as an interchange syntax that provides a model for describing resources.
Responsibility Refers to ownership or obligation for the performance or completion of tasks (i.e. who is charged with doing something on behalf of another). Responsibility may be delegated to others but the delegation does not eliminate responsibility.
Retire Stage The final stage of the Asset Lifecycle when the asset is no longer useful (in its current state) to the organisation. At this stage a decision must be made as to the asset’s future.
(See also "Asset Lifecycle")
Retrievability A dimension in the assessment of the Technical Condition of an Information Asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It deals with the degree to which an Information Asset can be identified, located and made accessible by certain business areas, and is dependent on the extent to which processes and procedures are defined and consistently applied to the management of an Information Asset.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Reviewer A person asked to review a product which is the subject of a Quality Review.
Risk The potential of an action or event to impact on the achievement of objectives. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Risk Analysis A systematic use of available information to determine the likelihood if specified events and their consequences.
Risk Assessment An evaluation of system assets and their vulnerabilities to threats, including potential losses that may result from threats.
Risk Avoidance Not becoming involved in a risk situation by ceasing the activity or process.
Risk Budget An amount of money set aside at Project Planning stage to allow risk mitigation strategies to be undertaken that may cost money but which are considered worthwhile.
Risk Control The provision of appropriate policies, procedures and standards of protection to avoid or minimise identified risks.
Risk Exposure Risk exposure is the product of the Likelihood and Consequence and is the rating that provides the key factor on which risk management decisions are made. The classifications of risk exposure include: unacceptable; critical; significant; minor; and area of concern.
Risk Identification The process of determining possible outcomes or occurrences associated with an activity, why these might occur and how.
Risk Level The level of risk calculated as a function of likelihood and consequence.
Risk Log A document/tool which provides identification, estimation, impact evaluation and counter-measures for all risks to the project. It should be created during the start-up of the program or project and updated during the life of the program/project. Also called 'Risk Register'.
Risk Management A process that allows individual risk events and overall risk to be understood and managed proactively, optimizing success by minimizing threats and maximizing opportunities. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Risk Management Approach The systematic application of policies and practices to the tasks of identifying, analysing, assessing, treating and monitoring risk. How the program and project will establish and maintain an effective risk management regime.
Risk Reduction See "Future Risk Reduction"
Risk Retention Retaining the responsibility for loss.
Risk Tollerance Line The risk tolerance line is the difference between risks that can be accepted or for which suitable actions have been planned, and risks that are considered serious enough to require referral to the next higher level of project authority.
Risk Treatment Selection and implementation of appropriate management options for dealing with identified risk.
Risk Transfer Shifting the responsibility for loss to another party.
Role A particular set of responsibilities and accountabilities that may be allocated to one or more individuals. In some circumstances, roles may be merged together as long as there is no conflict of interest. Some roles can only be owned by a single individual.



(See also "Role (in the context of Information Assets)").
Role (in the context of Information Assets) The role of the agency with reference to its operations in regard to the Information Asset.
The possible roles are:

creator;
referencer;
acquirer;
modifier; and
aggregator.
U-Government U-Government or ubiquitous government refers to a government services provided anywhere, anytime, unconstrained by power or telephone lines.
Unauthorised use Access that has not been authorised and includes use which is inappropriate, unlawful and/or criminal. (See Examples of authorised and unauthorised use of ICT facilities and devices in the Use of ICT Facilities and Devices (IS38) Toolbox for further clarification).
Unstructured content An information asset that is free-form format, such as multimedia files, images, sound files, or unstructured text. Unstructured data does not necessarily follow any format or hierarchal sequence, nor does it follow any relational rules.
However, unstructured content may contain some structured content. For the sake of simplicity, this concept of semi-structured is considered to be within the scope of unstructured data for the purpose of the Information Architecture. Examples included: Web pages, Documents, MPEG files and E-mail.
Use In relation to personal information, does not include mere disclosure of the information, but does include the inclusion of the information in a publication.
Useable records Useable records are those records that may be viewed and are fully functional and re-useable.
Useability A dimension in the assessment of Application Technical Condition in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology This dimension rates how easy an Application is to use. Assessment will include consideration of the training required for users to deploy it successfully, the consistency of the user interface, well-defined procedures, supporting documentation and help files.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
User(s) The person or group who will use the final deliverable(s) of the project.
Universal Service Obligation (USO) The obligation under the Telecommunications (Consumer Protection and Service Standards) Act 1999 to ensure that standard telephone services, payphones and prescribed carriage services are reasonably accessible to all Australians on an equitable basis, wherever they reside or carry on business.
Universal Service Provider (USP) A carrier or Carriage Service Provider responsible for fulfilling the Universal Service Obligation (USO). The USO is an obligation to make standard telephone services reasonably accessible to all people in Australia on an equitable basis, wherever they reside or carry on business. Telstra is currently the sole universal service provider.
User interface The set of commands, messages, images, and other elements that allow communication between computer and operator.
Value-Discipline Model See "Tracey-Wiersema Value-Discipline Model"
Value Management A management technique to define the perceived and actual value to the Agency, and then assessing progress and achievements based on this value.
Variance The difference between estimated cost, duration or effort and the actual result of performance. In addition, can be the difference between the initial or baseline product scope and the actual product delivered.
Vendor support A dimension in the assessment of Technology Technical Condition in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures the level of support offered by the supplier of the Technology and includes consideration of the type of support (onsite/personal problem logging/general problem logging), hours of coverage, and the responsiveness of the vendor (in terms of agreed timeframes and clearly defined escalation procedures)
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Virtual Private Network (VPN) A way to use a public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organisation's network.
Virus and Malicious Code A piece of computer software or code introduced into another program for malicious purposes.
Vision See "Business Vision"
Vision Statement An outward-facing description of the new capabilities resulting from program delivery. A statement of strategic goals the Agency needs to attain as part of its ongoing service delivery. It should not be confused with a Business Vision, which is defined as the key focus of the organisation and how it wants to be perceived by external parties at some point in the future.
Visioning See "Business and Information Visioning", "Application and Technology Visioning"
Visioning Workbook A resource for use by agencies in obtaining Visioning information at workshop or interview. It contains separate worksheets for both the Business and Information Visioning and for the Application and Technology Visioning. The worksheets pose a series of questions to obtain ideas and direction to meet the needs of the business in the future and how this might be enabled by future ICT delivery, bearing in mind the possibilities for new applications or technologies. The questions may be tailored to suit each agencies specific needs.
Voice-over IP (VoIP) Is the transmission of telephone calls over a data network.
W3C World Wide Web Consortium in co-ordination with organizations around the world pursues accessibility of the Web through technology, guidelines, tools, education and development.
Web 2.0 Web 2.0 is the next generation of the World Wide Web. It is based on a different level of capability being exposed by providers. Typical web 2.0 capabilities allow users to create content for themselves on providers' systems, users combine content from multiple providers, and then share their newly created/combined content with other users that they may or may not know. It is also characterised by much more advanced functionality being delivered in web based applications, such as Google Documents.
Web-Oriented Architecture (WOA) This is a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) for web-based applications. A WOA is a way of conceiving a software application for the web such that it is able to be plugged together from components. Web services (a standard technical interface to a process embedded in a system) are a key part of the concept.
Wide Area Network (WAN) A data network linking various arms of an organisation. Often carried over wireline networks but increasingly using wireless technologies.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) In PMBOK, this is a hierarchical task list created by decomposing the project’s products into detailed tasks. The WBS is depicted as a tree diagram (or hierarchy chart) or as a list in outline form with detailed items subordinated to higher-level items. Often forms the detail under a product focused schedule. Under the project management methodology, the WBS is a collectively represented by the Product Breakdown Structure, Team Plan, and Work Package.
Work Package The set of information relevant to the creation of one or more products. It will contain the Product Description(s), details of any constraints on production such as time and cost, interfaces, and confirmation of the agreement between the Project Manager and the person or Team Manager who is to implement the Work Package that the work can be done within the constraints.
Work Package Authorisation Authority from the Project Manager to produce a defined Work Package.
World Wide Web (www) International network of data paths providing the core of the Internet.
XML See "Extensible mark-up language".
X.500 A standard that defines how global directories should be structured. X.500 directories are hierarchical with different levels for each category of information, such as country, state, and city.
Zero Float A task is said to have 'zero float' when any delay to its planned finish date would either extend the critical path of a schedule or broach a 'finish-no-later than' constraint.
SAM (Software Asset Management) See "Software Asset Management (SAM)".
SAR (Software Asset Register) See "Software Asset Register (SAR)".
Scalability A dimension in the assessment of Application/Technology Technical Condition in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures the ability of the Application or Technology to continue to function well when it (or its context) is required to meet increased volumes or users (for example, its ability to provide good response time when under peak load).
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Scaled Cost A major characteristic of an asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology which establishes a rating for the Annual Estimated Cost of Operation of each Information Asset/Application/Technology used by the agency on a scale of 1 to 5. To cater for differences between the size of agency budgets, agencies are able to adjust the scale to reflect the actual spread of costs across their information assets/applications/technologies.
The scale is logarithmic in nature, so, while a small change in dollar value at the low end affects the rating of an information asset/application/technology, it takes a comparatively large change in dollar values at the high end to affect the rating.
(See also "Cost of Operation" and "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Schedule The project timeline, identifying the dates (absolute or relative to a start date) that project tasks will be started and completed, resources that will be required, and the milestones that will be reached. Also applies at the Program level.
Schema A representation, outline or model imposed on a complex information structure to assist in explaining it, mediate perception, or guide a response.
Specifically the combination entities and their relationships, attributes and associated data types. Within the information architecture this includes specific XML documents, DTDs, XSDs, ER Models, UML Models or any other meta-description of the structure of content. /Schemas also provide the structural metadata of an information asset.
Note: A schema is not to be confused with a scheme which is a form of classification (See "Classification"). Examples include, Structure of the AGLS Element Set, Data model for an application, XML schema for a data exchange, Database structure and Model of page structure of a web site.
SCIR (Security Classified Information Register) See Security Classified Information Register
Scope Scope is defined in terms of three dimensions - product, project and impact. Product scope is the full set of features and functions to be provided as a result of the project. Project scope is the work that has to be done to deliver the product. Impact scope is the depth and breadth of involvement by, and effect on, the performing and client organisations.
Scope Creep The unconscious shift in the project scope resulting from uncontrolled changes to requirements.
Scope of Use Both a field in the Application and Technology Registers and a dimension in the assessment of Business Impact for an Application or a Technology in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology.
It defines how widely an Application or Technology is used within the agency - the number of individuals/business units using the application or technology.
In the asset assessment process it is used to gauge the extent of the influence of an Application or Technology on agency operations and service delivery.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Scope of Use (External) Field in the Information Register which refers to the use of an Information Asset external to government, such as use by the public, local government or industry. /Scope of Use (Internal) and Scope of User (External) are combined into one dimension in the assessment of Business Impact for an Information Asset in the Queensland ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology.
(See also "Scope of Use")
Scope of Use (Internal) Field in the Information Register which refers to the use of an Information Asset within government, such as within an agency, between agencies, and across government.
Scope of Use (Internal) and Scope of User (External) are combined into one dimension in the assessment of Business Impact for an Information Asset in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology.
(See also "Scope of Use")
SDPC (Service Delivery and Performance Commission) See "Service Delivery and Performance Commission report (SDPC)."
Security Classified Information Official information (National Security or Non-National Security) which require additional security controls in accordance with the risk of compromise to the information.
(See also "Non-National Security Information" and "National Security Information")
Security Classified Information Register A register (electronic or paper based) that keeps a record of security classified information asset attributes.
Security Controls Hardware, procedures, policies and physical safeguards that are put into place to assure the integrity and protection of information and the means of processing and accessing it.
Security Incidents May include, but are not limited to, any act that:

Does not comply with the requirements of this policy;
Exposes the Queensland Government to actual or potential monetary loss through the compromise of security;
Involves the disclosure of confidential or private information or the unauthorised use of Queensland Government information;
Results in the loss of Queensland Government information; or
Involves the use of hardware, software or information for unauthorised or illicit purposes, which may include the violation of any law, regulation or reporting requirements of any law enforcement or Government body.
Senior Responsible Owner (SRO) The individual who is accountable for an initiative meeting its objectives and optimizing benefits realisation*
Senior Supplier The Project Board role which provides knowledge and experience of the main discipline(s) involved in the production of the project's deliverable(s).
Senior User A member of the Project Board, accountable for ensuring that user needs are specified correctly and that the solution meets those needs.
Sensitive Information Information that requires classification, that is Highly Protected, Protected or In Confidence.
Service Catalogue Written statement of services, default levels and options.
Service Delivery and Performance Commission report (SDPC) The Service Delivery and Performance Commission was established under the Service Delivery and Performance Commission Act 2005. The role of the Commission is to review and identify possible cost savings and efficiencies in Queensland Government departments.
Service Desk The single point of contact within the organisation for users of services.
Service Desk System Integrated set of tools that supports the service desk.
Service Level Agreement (SLA) A written agreement between a service provider and customer(s) that documents agreed service levels for a service.
Service Level Management (SLM) The process of defining, agreeing, documenting and managing the levels of customer service, that are required and cost justified.
Service Management Management of services to meet the customer's requirements.
Services Services are activities undertaken by an agency on a repetitive basis either to fulfil legislative requirements or to satisfy an external client need. Services should be identified in Outcome Statements produced by agencies as part of the Managing for Outcomes (MFO) program.
Shared Service Initiative (SSI) The Shared Service Initiative is responsible for the standardisation and centralisation of corporate services policies, practices and systems that have traditionally been carried out within each state government agency including: human resources (HR), finance and document and records management.
Shared Service Solutions (SSS) Shared Service Solutions is responsible for the design and implementation of the new whole-of-Government standard business processes, system solutions and approach to delivering corporate services across the sector.
SI&ICT (Strategic Information and Information and Communication Technology) A term related to the corporate governance of an organisation. Defined under AS8015, the Australian Standard for Corporate Governance of ICT, as: ‘The system by which the current and future use of ICT is directed and controlled. It involves evaluating and directing the plans for the use of ICT to support the organisation and monitoring this use to achieve plans. It includes the strategy and policies for using ICT within an organisation’.
SI&ICT CEO Committee (Strategic Information and Information Communication Technology Chief Executive Officers Committee) See "Strategic Information and Information Communication Technology Chief Executive Officers Committee (SI&ICT CEO Committee)."
SI&ICT Council (Strategic Information and Information Communication Technology Council) See "Strategic Information and Information Communication Technology Council (SI&ICT Council)."
SI&ICT Council Executive (Strategic Information and Information Communication Technology Council Executive) See "Strategic Information and Information Communication Council Executive (SI&ICT Council Executive)."
SI&ICT Council Sub Committee (Strategic Information and Information Communication Technology Council Sub-Committee) See "Strategic Information and Information Communication Technology Council Sub-committee (SI&ICT Council Sub-committee)."
Significant Individual Purchase A significant individual purchase in IT&T is defined as one with a high relative monetary value and/or where supply is difficult to secure as defined in the State Purchasing Policy 2000 (Categories 2, 3, and 4). Some principles in this Information Standard apply only to purchases falling into these categories.
Site Map A site map provides a global view of the organization of a page or site.
SLM (Software Licence Management) See "Software Licence Management (SLM)".
Smart Cards A hardware token (usually a credit-card sized plastic card with an embedded chip) which carries information for authentication.
Smart Directions Statement 2008 (SDS) The Smart Directions Statement 2008 for Information and Communications Technology within the Queensland Government provides the Queensland Government’s blueprint of priorities and actions to manage the Government’s investment in and use of ICT.
Smart eDA (Smart Electronic Development Applications) The Smart eDA Project seeks to transform the paper-based IDAS process (system for the assessment and approval of development applications in Queensland) into an electronic process.
Smart Service Queensland (SSQ) Smart Service Queensland is responsible for integrating government services and information to facilitate faster and easier access for Queensland Government customers.
SME (Small to Medium-sized Enterprise) Under the Queensland Government’s SME Participation Scheme, an SME is defined as any enterprise with less than 500 employees worldwide. Subsidiaries of larger companies will be classified according to their parent company employee levels.
SMS (Short Message Service) A service for sending messages of up to 160 characters (224 characters if using a 5-bit mode) to mobile phones that use GSM or CDMA communication.
SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) A way of designing IT and business systems such that they are made up of a set of independent components that can be plugged together in a variety of ways. Each component is self-contained and does not need to understand the internal workings of any other component but can simply invoke them through their service interface.
SOE (Standard Operating Environment) See "Standard Operating Environment (SOE)".
Soft Token An authentication device that is stored in a computer.
Software as a service A different model of purchasing software. You do not purchase a licence for a package you pay a fee for your access to it. This is usually done in an online environment. SalesForce.com is a prominent example where you buy access to a Cusomer Relationship Management capability over the web.
Software Asset Management (SAM) All the infrastructure and processes necessary for the effective management control and protection of software licences and associated media within an organisation throughout all stages of their lifecycle. See SLM.
Software Asset Register (SAR) A software asset management database to assist agencies to track and manage their software licences. Designed to collate data on software purchases, licences and other information pertinent to ownership of a licence.
Software Licence Management (SLM) All the infrastructure and processes necessary for the effective management control and protection of software licences and associated media within an organisation throughout all stages of their lifecycle. Within the Financial Management Standard 1997, software is not recognised as an asset. Therefore within the Queensland Government the acronym SLM is used instead of SAM.
Solicit Solicit, in relation to personal information, means request a person to provide that information, or a kind of information in which the information is included.
Solution Architecture A standardised graphical and textual representation of the required domains, existing ICT assets and potential products which will form the basis of a Solution for an Initiative in the Program of Work.
Solution architectures are used to establish end-to-end solutions which tie together elements from multiple layers within the Enterprise Architecture. They identify the most appropriate solution from a number of options which have been weighed up in terms of business needs, technology options and delivery constraints.
A completed Solution Architecture includes the Solution Architecture Component Diagram and the Solution Inventory.
Solution Architecture Component Diagram A Solution Architecture Component Diagram is created as part of developing a Solutions Architecture. The Component Diagram is created using the solution element working list.
Solution Dependency Charts A visual representation of the various inter-dependencies between the technical components, application components, application initiatives and technology initiatives of a solution.
Two types of charts are involved: Chart 1, showing Initiative Dependencies by Element Type (whether technology initiative/component, or application component); and Chart 2, showing Dependencies by Phase.
A macro in the Components worksheet within the ICT Planning Workbook will automatically produce the Solution Dependency Charts and the Solution Dependency Matrix.
Solution Dependency Matrix For each initiative, the Solution Dependency Matrix lists the acquisition and integration costs, acquisition time, and phase for every component and sub-component and a total cost.
In conjunction with the analysis of the management and support activities associated with the initiative, the Solution Dependency Matrix will enable the creation of a complete Initiative Schedule including an estimated total cost of implementation.
Solution Element Working List For each ICT Initiative identified in the Program of Work, the Solution Element Working List defines the existing ICT assets and the potential Applications and Technology domains which have been highlighted as related to the initiative. The Solution Element Working List should identify the domains which directly address the business need (business and information domains) and those which address the technical requirements (application and technology domains) taking the agency's architectural guidelines into account.
Solution Inventory The Solution Inventory is part of the Solution Architecture and is essentially a manifest of all the domain components within a solution (Business, Information, Application and Technology) and how it is proposed that these be addressed. For example, we may need to buy or build a new piece of application functionality. How is this to be delivered? Via a portal or client server? What database or hardware environments are required?
Source Name Name of the entity that is the source of the Information Asset. This should directly relate to the Source Type.
Source Type Type of body the Information Asset is sourced from (eg: agency, external body, business unit).
Sourced Origin of an Information Asset (whether from within the organisation or from an external party).
Spam Unsolicited bulk e-mail or SMS messages which are generally of a commercial nature promoting or selling products or services. Often include illegal or offensive content and its purpose may be fraudulent.
Specification A detailed, exact statement of particulars describing project deliverables in terms of appearance, operational constraints, materials, dimensions, and quality attributes. Sometimes qualified by requirements specifications and design specifications.
Splash Page A page that loads on entering a web site and does not usually contain substantive data, only to reinforce what the site is about.
Sponsoring Group Senior level sponsorship of the program providing the investment decision and top-level endorsement of the rationale and objectives for the program. May comprise or be represented by a Program Board chaired by the Senior Responsible Owner.
SSI (Shared Service Initiative) See "Shared Service Intitiative (SSI)."
SSQ (Smart Service Queensland) See "Smart Service Queensland (SSQ)."
SSS (Shared Service Solutions) See "Shared Service Solutions (SSS)."
Stage A management decision point within a project to assess viability of the project in relation to the Project Business Case. The Project Board approves the project to proceed (and commits resources) only one stage at a time.
Stakeholder Any individual or group with an interest in the change or its outcomes. (source: P Mayfield)*
Stakeholder Management Approach / Strategy How the program will identify and analyse the stakeholders and how ongoing communications will be achieved between the program and all its stakeholders.
Stakeholder Map A matrix showing stakeholders and their particular interests in the program or project.
Standard Sets out the technical or other specifications necessary to ensure that a method or material will consistently do the job it is intended to do.
In the context of information architecture standards may be applied to information assets. In many cases standards themselves may manifest as information assets.
In the context of the Queensland Government Information Architecture a standard is merely one type of constraint.
Some classifications also manifest as standards. Examples included, ISO 19115 Geographic Information - Metadata Standard and Queensland Government Information Security Classification Framework.
Standard Operating Environment (SOE) A common set of specific product and version types to be used for desktop systems across all Government agencies.
Strategic Highest level of standard decision-making hierarchy - for long-term decisions with a 5 year (or longer) horizon usually developed for strategic planning, strategic thinking or in response to a threat or opportunity.
(See also "Initial Intention")
Strategic Alignment Chart A visual representation of the degree of alignment between an organisation's Vision, Goals, Objectives, Strategies and Business Processes.
Strategic Information and Information Communication Technology Chief Executive Officers Committee (SI&ICT CEO Committee) This committee operates as the decision making forum for significant strategic information management and Information Communication Technology issues within the Queensland Government.
Strategic Information and Information Communication Technology Council (SI&ICT Council) Acts as the primary point of collaboration and information sharing for all agency chief information officers, chief technology officers and champions of strategic information management.
Strategic Information and Information Communication Council Executive (SI&ICT Council Executive) An advisory committee established to provide advice on, recommend appropriate course of action and recommend endorsement of submissions received to the Queensland Government Chief Information Officer and the Queensland Government Chief Technology Officer.
Strategic Information and Information Communication Technology Council Sub-committee (SI&ICT Council Sub-committee) Sub-committees to the Strategic Information and Information Communication Technology Council drawn together to address specific Information Communication Technology issues.
Strategies See "Business Strategies"
Streaming Allows users to see and hear/see an audio/video file as its transferred. Streaming video is usually sent from pre-recorded video files, but they can also be broadcast live.
Structure The concepts related to the formal description of the internal structures of content as well as the relationships between content.
Structured Content Information assets typically described via entity-relationship or class models, such as logical data models and XML documents. Structured data is organized in well-defined semantic "chunks" called entities, nodes or objects. Examples included: Relational database, Spreadsheet and Cadastral data set.
Subject Matter Expert (SME) An expert in some aspect of the project's or program’s content expected to provide input regarding business, scientific, engineering or other subjects. Input may be in the form of requirements, planning, resolutions to issues and/or review of project results. They might be asked to perform independent Assurance roles.
Successful Delivery Directorate (SDD) A division within the Queensland Government Chief Information Office responsible for the development and support of better practice methodologies for implementation across the sector – includes project, program, portfolio, benefits management and business process review / improvement methodologies.
Successor A task or milestone that is logically linked to one or more predecessor tasks.
Supplier The group or groups responsible for the supply of the project's products. They can be either internal or external to the Agency.
Supplier (in the context of Information Assets) The provider of an information service through which consumers are able to access information assets. Suppliers implement the information service, but may not necessarily be the data manager, custodian or owner. However, a supplier would operate within the rules applicable to the information assets they utilise for an information service. Examples included, OESR provides access to various information assets (some of which are held by other agencies) about Queensland to Queensland Government agencies and NRMW offers access to digital cadastral information assets to local councils.
Support Arrangements A dimension in the assessment of Application and Technology Business Impact in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures the mechanisms and arrangements in place to handle failures of the Application/Technology. It includes consideration of the depth and coverage of support arrangements for an Application or Technology such as who is involved in support, the priority given to problems, and the existence of contingency plans to address any failures, as well as an assessment of any features in the design and implementation which contribute to its resilience.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Support Staff - Queensland Government (refer also to ICT Support Staff) For an Information Asset refers to the number of Queensland Government employees supporting the information asset, performing actual maintenance activities on the data eg: data fixing, data merging and data cleansing. Both business and ICT staff should be included irrespective of whether they are a full-time, part-time or casual Queensland Government employee.
For an Application or Technology asset, an equivalent measure is the number of ICT Support Staff employed as a Queensland Government employee.
Support Staff - Contractors (refer also to ICT Support Staff) For an Information Asset refers to the number of contract staff supporting the information asset, performing actual maintenance activities on the data eg: data fixing, data merging and data cleansing. Contractors employed in a business or ICT capacity should be included, irrespective of whether the staff are on-site or off-site.
For an Application or Technology asset, an equivalent measure is the number of ICT Support Staff employed as contractors.
System Management A dimension in the assessment of Technology Technical Condition in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures the level of management capability built into the Technology as well as its ability to be integrated into the corporate management platform (i.e.: it may have good management capabilities but, if they are proprietary, they may not be able to be integrated into the existing or planned system management processes).
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Tactical One of the possible values of Initial Intention of an Information Asset. This middle level of the standard decision-making hierarchy describes a medium-term decision, typically with a quarterly or bi-yearly horizon as a result of tactical planning or ongoing management monitoring of the performance of operations.
(See also "Initial Intention")
Tangible Benefit The quantifiable and measurable improvement resulting from an outcome which is perceived as positive by a stakeholder and which will normally have a value expressed in monetary or quantifiable terms.
Task A piece of work requiring effort, resources and having a concrete outcome (a deliverable). A task may be of any size and is synonymous with activity.
Task Dependency A relationship in which a task or milestone relies on other tasks to be performed (completely or partially) before it can be performed. Also referred to as a logical relationship.
Taxonomy A collection of controlled vocabulary terms organized into a hierarchical structure. Taxonomies provide a means for categorizing or classifying information within a reasonably well-defined associative structure, in which each term in a taxonomy is in one or more parent/child relationships to other terms in the Taxonomy. Specifically, the children in a taxonomy are specialisations of the parent concept. Examples included: Dublin Core, AGLS and Queensland Government Enterprise Architecture Portfolio Frameworks (Business, Application, Information and Technology)
TCW (Telstra Country Wide) See "Telstra Country Wide (TCW)."
Technical Account Manager (TAM) This role is part of the Microsoft Premier Support Service (PSS) for budget funded agencies. These are Microsoft employees who manage a number of agency Customer Support Managers (CSMs) in the delivery of the PSS.
Technical Condition A major characteristic in the Queensland Government ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology. It measures the health of the Information Asset/Application/Technology in terms of performance, maintainability and alignment with the corporate architecture to determine whether its use should be encouraged or curtailed. The dimensions of the evaluation vary between Information Assets and Applications and Technologies.
Note: Technical Condition is not designed to assess the Fitness for Purpose of a particular Information Asset or Application or Technology as it is employed in the agency.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Technology The technologies required to support the application portfolio of the business, including software technologies, hardware, and network support.
This includes infrastructure software which is broad based or commodity in nature. Technologies are involved with either essential infrastructure or general productivity software and hardware (horizontal focus); an application relates to particular business processes (vertical focus).
Technology Assessment Assessing each technology in the agency ICT technology portfolio to determine in terms of its current value to the business, technical condition, cost and potential value then applying an objective process to planning the use of technologies in the agency.
(See also "ICT Portfolio Assessment Methodology")
Technology Consolidation Business Case (TCBC) (Also known as Technology Transformational Program (TTP)) An outcome of the Service Delivery and Performance Commission review of ICT Governance. A TCBC was prepared to identify how to realise the benefits of consolidating technology functions across government pertaining to data centres, networks and infrastructure. The TCBC identified the investment required to undertake consolidation and the potential benefits. The outcome of the TCBC is the implementation of the Technology Transformation Program (TTP) which will be undertaken as a staged rollout to minimise disruptions to government services and reduce project risk.
Technology Domain One of the categories in the Queensland Government's generic classification scheme which seeks to identify the types of Technologies used to meet organisational requirements. Domains are organised in a hierarchy of three levels with Level 1 as the broadest grouping and level 3 as the most specific.
(see also "Technology Portfolio Framework")
Technology Drivers The Technology reasons which are compelling the agency to change. These may be needs or opportunities which are respectively pushing or pulling the agency towards new ICT initiatives. For example, vendor support may be ceasing for a critical Application or Technology and a substitute will need to be identified or a new/updated Technology may offer potential for more timely delivery and lower costs.
Technology Portfolio The Technology Portfolio is made up of the Technology infrastructure elements (both hardware and software) in use in the agency. These elements include broad based or commodity products which are required to support business strategies and software applications.
Technology classification framework This framework provides a taxonomy for categorising infrastructure Technologies into domains of broad based or commodity products, primarily segmented along the lines of how Technology vendors choose to bundle and target their offerings to business and government. The goal of the Technology Portfolio Framework is to allow for a common viewpoint and understanding of the ICT Technology Domains across the Queensland Government. This in turn aids standardisation as the various stakeholders come to understand the possibilities for leveraging related domain activities in other departments.
Technology Profile The Technology Profile is a standalone document that can be read independently of any of the other planning documents and is also used as input for other activities in the ICT Planning process.
It contains the results of the technologies planning activities conducted as part of the ICT strategic planning process which are then summarised into a profile of all significant technologies in use in the organisation within the scope of the planning project (the Technology Portfolio) and the extent of their value and level of support for the core business of the organisation’s work units. It includes assessments of how well Technologies are managed and identifies initiatives to address any strategic and operational gaps which become apparent.
Such initiatives may include increased investment in some areas and reduced investment in others, taking into consideration the alignment of the current portfolio to the business and strategic direction, the risk inherent in the portfolio and the potential of the portfolio to contribute to planned future outcomes.
As the profile summarises the previous information collection and analysis into a document which can be presented back to the business for consideration, it provides a tool to gather business validation for the previous activities.
The Technology Profile is used as input into the preparation of the ICT Program of Work for the organisation.
Technology Profile Template A template provided in the ICT Planning Methodology to document the Technology Profile which offers guidance in creating the Technology Dashboard and evaluating the strategic alignment and positioning of business elements and ICT assets.
Technology Register A register of information about each of the technologies in the agency's Technology portfolio. The Register will define the usage of each Technology, including whether or not it is used in a significant agency Application; the name and version of the product; the vendor's name and support provided; and the components of its cost.
Technology Transformation Program (TTP) see "Technology Consolidation Business Case (TCBC) (also known as Technology Transformational Program (TTP))"
Telco Jargon for Telephone or Telecommunications Company
Telecommunications Closet An enclosed space for housing telecommunications equipment, cable terminations and cross-connecting cables.
Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman (TIO) An industry funded independent dispute resolution body established in December 1993, for consumers unable to resolve complaints with their telecommunications carrier or Carriage Service Provider (CSP).
Telecommunications Outlet A fixed connecting device where the horizontal cable terminates.
Telstra Country Wide (TCW) A business unit of Telstra established to improve Telstra's business performance and the provision of telecommunications and information technology services to customers in regional, rural and remote Australia.
Thesaurus A controlled list of terms linked together by semantic, hierarchical, associative or equivalence relationships. Not merely the hierarchical specialisation structure of a taxonomy, but also the semantics of related terms in forms of synonyms and antonyms as well as language usages (such as verb, noun etc). Examples included, Keyword AAA: A thesaurus of common administrative terms, QKey, Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN) and Australian Governments' Interactive Functions Thesaurus.
Token A physical thing, issued as a credential. A token is likely to include security features intended to render it difficult to forge, and tying it in some manner with the particular entity.
Examples include: identity cards, smartcards, one-time-password devices (eg RSA SecurID).
Third Party An individual or an organization outside of the individual agency that provides labour or services.
TIO (Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman) See "Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman (TIO)."
Tolerance The permissible deviation above and below a plan's estimate of time and cost (or other defined dimensions) without escalating the deviation to the next level of management. Separate tolerance figures should be given for time and cost.
Top-down Estimating Approximating the size (duration, effort and cost) and risk of a project by looking at the project as a whole and comparing it to previously performed similar projects. The comparison may be made directly using "analogous estimating," through an algorithm as in "parametric estimating", from the memory of estimating experts or Lessons Learned Reports.
Topic Map A mechanism for describing knowledge structures and associating them with information resources. Topic Maps exploit both the hierarchical classification of taxonomies (broader/narrower) with the semantic features of a thesaurus (related terms / uses) without necessarily the strict control of a thesaurus. Examples included: OpenCyc and ISO/IEC 13250 Topic Maps.
Tracey-Wiersema Value-Discipline Model (in the context of the ICT Planning Methodology) Strategic tool to assist agencies to understand what they want their customers to value them for. The model looks at three ways in which an organisation may focus its energies (operational excellence, customer intimacy and product leadership) and defines the characteristics of each. It is used in the Queensland Government ICT Planning Methodology to check the alignment between an agency's vision, goals, objectives, strategies and business processes.
Tranche A grouping of projects and activities that make up a program. The end of each tranche provides a major review point at which the program can be formally assessed in terms of its progress towards achieving the desired outcomes and measurable realisation of benefits.
Transaction A transaction is the smallest unit of business activity. Processes resulting from undertaking a piece of business, or the relationship between or within Public Authorities, between people or between a Public Authority and a person are all transactions.
Transactional A Content Type for an Information Asset. See "Transactional Content".
(See also "Content Type")
Transactional Content Structured content that supports or results from the execution of business processes and workflows.
Transactional content will typically be relational in nature and purposefully normalised when compared with Analytical content. Transactional content is typically subject to modification on an ongoing basis. Examples included: Driver licence record, Address details and Appointment.
Transfer A transfer is the process of changing the physical custody of records. This may occur without changing the legal ownership of the records.
Transition Point A transition point is used to connect round cables to flat, under-carpet cables.
Penetration test A penetration test is an attempt using manual and automated methods and tools to bypass the security of a system in a manner much more invasive than a basic vulnerability scan. Penetration testing scope can vary from including social engineering, data mining and attacks via other systems, to more benign narrow assessments of a single ICT asset or service. The scope and rules for the test, such as extent of vulnerability exploration, is generally agreed with the business owner of the system. The goal is to identify weaknesses before any hostile attacker can take advantage of them.
Uniform Resource Locator A system Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is the address of a system or website on the internet by means of which network traffic can be directed to the system or website
Internet facing system An internet facing system is one that can be accessed from the public internet. Such access is not limited to web browser access via http or https. A system is internet facing if it broadcasts or responds to requests on any internet protocol (IP) open port and can be trivially communicated with from the internet
Accountable The individual who is ultimately answerable for an activity, decision or outcome and who delegates work/tasks/objectives to those who are responsible. Unlike responsibility, accountability cannot be delegated. Having a single point of accountability is one of the four principles of project governance (Garland, 2009)*
Accounting rate of return The average annual accounting profit divided by the initial or average investment cost*
Additionality The benefits from an initiative, which would not have been realised if the initiative had not been undertaken*
Aggregated risk Overall risk to the portfolio when risks are considered as a whole rather than individually*
As-is state The current operating state prior to implementation of a change initiative*
Accredited Training Organisation (ATO) An accredited training organisation, assessed and accredited by APMG-International to provide training courses and examinations*
Behavioural economics/finance The study of the effects of psychology on investment decision-making and financial management*
Benefits Eligibility Rules The set of rules about what benefits can and can’t be claimed, how they should be categorised, quantified and valued*
Benefits Management Cycle The cycle that encompasses the following five practices: Identify and Quantify; Value and Appraise; Plan; Realize; Review*
Benefits Management Framework (portfolio) The document that provides stakeholders with comprehensive guidance that facilitates consistent and effective management of benefits for all initiatives included within the portfolio*
Benefits Management Strategy The document that defines how benefits will be managed on an initiative throughout the business change lifecycle. This document should be consistent with the portfolio benefits management framework*
Benefits Map A pictorial representation of the business and enabling changes on which benefits realisation depends, and how these benefits contribute to organisational (including strategic) objectives*
Business Change Lifecycle The framework consisting of a consistent set of stages or phases and decision points used to manage the development and delivery of change initiatives*
Business Model A cause-and-effect model, which describes the assumptions about how the organisation creates and delivers value to customers or citizens*
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) A model that estimates the required return on an investment as the risk-free rate of return plus a premium reflecting the extent to which that investment’s return varies in relation to the market as a whole*
Champion-challenger Model A technique where all change initiatives are expected to comply with the defined portfolio processes and regulations (the current ‘champion’) but everyone is encouraged to recommend changes (‘challengers’). When approved, the ‘challenger’ becomes the new ‘champion’ process*
Clear Line of Sight A technique that ensures a transparent view from strategic intent through to benefits realisation*
Coefficient of Variation The standard deviation of an initiative’s returns divided by its expected value – a relative measure of risk*
Contingent Valuation Values determined by asking people how much they would be willing to pay for a good or service (‘willingness to pay’), or how much they would be willing to accept to give it up (‘willingness to accept’)*
Cost-benefit Analysis Analysis which quantifies in monetary terms as many of the costs and benefits of a proposal as feasible, including items for which the market does not provide a satisfactory measure of economic value. (Source: HM Treasury, 2003a)*
Cost-effectiveness Analysis Analysis that compares the cost of alternative ways of producing the same or similar outputs. (Source: HM Treasury, 2003a)*
Customer Insight Defined by the Government Communication Network’s ‘Engage Program’ as: ‘A deep ‘truth’ about the customer based on their behaviour, experiences, beliefs, needs or desires, that is relevant to the task or issue and ‘rings bells’ with target people.’*
Deadweight Benefits that would have been realised in any case even if the initiative had not been undertaken*
Decision-conferencing A technique whereby managers consider and debate in a facilitated workshop the relative weightings to attach to the organisation’s strategic objectives; the criteria to be used to assess strategic contribution in each case; and the scores to allocate to individual initiatives. In this way the portfolio governance body comes to a collective decision on the composition of the portfolio. This has been found to be very effective in terms of optimising portfolio returns, and also results in enhanced commitment to the portfolio and to the portfolio management processes*
Delphi Technique Where forecasts are derived from a panel of subject-matter experts who provide their estimates anonymously and then revise them in the light of the estimates of their peers*
Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Discounting forecast cash flows to determine the present value of an initiative. Undertaken by applying a discount factor to the cash flows reflecting the organisation’s cost of capital (adjusted for any initiative-specific risks)*
Discounting Converting future costs or benefits to present values using a discount rate*
‘Dog that didn’t bark’ Test Assessing not only the identified benefits, but also asking whether there are any additional benefits that haven’t been included. From the Sherlock Holmes story ‘Silver Blaze’ where the crucial evidence was that the dog didn’t bark. This is referred to by Kahneman (2011a) as ‘WYSIATI’ (‘What You See Is All There Is’). The risk is that we only consider the benefits included in the business case rather than also asking what other benefits may be possible*
Double Counting Where the same benefits are claimed by, and used to justify, more than one initiative*
Driver-based Analysis A technique whereby the implicit value chain underpinning the strategic objectives, or the organisation’s business model, is made explicit – i.e. what are the elements in the value chain, what factors drive achievement of each element, and how are they linked? This can be achieved using approaches such as the service profit chain, the service value chain, the balanced scorecard and portfolio-level benefits mapping*
Economic Benefits/Value Benefits that have a monetary value attributed to them, but where the underlying benefit relates to time savings or some performance improvement – where there may be some financial impact but the benefit is itself non-financial. Also see ‘financial benefits/value’*
Emergent Benefits Benefits that emerge during the design, development, deployment and application of the new ways of working, rather than being identified at the start of the initiative*
Enabler A necessary prerequisite for a business change (and benefits realisation) to happen, and usually a one-off – such as the implementation of a new IT system*
End Benefit The benefits the initiative is set up to realize and which confirm achievement of the investment objectives*
Evaluation Assessment undertaken after implementation to assess whether the anticipated outcomes and benefits were realised and what lessons and insights can be applied to future change initiatives*
Expected Value The financial forecast of the outcome of a course of action multiplied by the probability of achieving that outcome. (source: CIMA, Management Accounting Official Terminology)*
Formative Evaluation An ex post evaluation in which the focus is on learning to improve performance. It is essentially forward-looking, as opposed to summative evaluation, which compares actual performance against what was originally planned*
Generic Risk A risk that applies to benefits management across the portfolio, such as one arising from inaccurate forecasting, including non-realisation of anticipated benefits*
Hurdle Rate of Return The target rate of return set by an organisation, against which the return on investment of initiatives will be assessed. Also used as the discount rate to calculate net present value*
Intermediate or Enabling Benefits Benefits which arise from a change initiative and which can in turn enable the realisation of the end benefits that the initiative was designed to realize*
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) The annual percentage return (forecast or actual) from an initiative, at which the present value of the total cash inflows equals the present value of the total cash outflows*
Leadership The ability to establish vision and direction, to influence and align others towards a common purpose, and to empower and inspire people to achieve success. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Market Price or Value The price at which a good or service can be bought or sold, which is determined by the forces of demand and supply in a market*
Maturity Model An organisational model that describes a number of evolutionary stages through which an organisation improves its management processes. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Modular Initiative An initiative that is broken down into modules, each of which delivers some benefits, and where the decision to cancel further investment does not mean that all prior investment is wasted*
Monte Carlo Simulation A technique to calculate the probability distribution of possible outcomes. Commonly applied using relevant software*
Multi-criteria Analysis A technique applied to the appraisal of options (option appraisal), an initiative (investment appraisal), or to rank initiatives (portfolio prioritization). Designed in part to address the issue of unreliable financial forecasts. It is based on assigning weights to relevant financial and non-financial criteria, and then scoring options or initiatives in terms of how well they perform against these criteria. Weighted scores are then summed, and can be used to rank options/initiatives, including by means of a portfolio map or by dividing the total score by the cost of the option/initiative to calculate a score per £/$/€ invested*
Net Present Value (NPV) The value of future net cash flows (inflows less outflows) discounted at the relevant cost of capital. Where the cash outflows exceed the inflows, the result is the net present cost (NPC)*
One Version of the Truth A technique whereby each element of progress reporting by change initiatives (including benefits) is derived from an agreed source and to an agreed schedule. The resulting data is recognized as the authoritative source of information on portfolio and initiative progress used for monitoring, reporting and management decision-making*
Opportunity Cost The value of the next best alternative foregone*
Opportunity Value Benefits The value of staff time saved where there is no immediate saving in budgets, unit costs or costs avoided. Rather the staff time saved can be redeployed to activities that would otherwise not have been undertaken. The result may be an improvement in quality, outputs and outcomes*
Optimism Bias Defined by the HM Treasury Green Book ( as ‘the demonstrated systematic tendency for appraisers to be over-optimistic about key project parameters, including capital costs, operating costs, works duration and benefits delivery. To address this, adjustments should be made to the estimates of program and project costs, benefits and works duration based on empirical data.’ Standard adjustments are included in the HM Treasury Green Book (HM Treasury, 2003a) and on the HMT website*
Pareto Rule Also known as the 80:20 rule i.e. 80% of the total value (in this case from a change initiative) is derived from 20% of the benefits*
Payback The period of time before the cash inflows from an investment exceed the accumulated cash outflows. Can use discounted or undiscounted cash flows*
Portfolio Delivery Committee The governance body which monitors change delivery against plan, including benefits realisation, and is responsible for addressing issues that can negatively impact on benefits optimization*
Portfolio Investment Committee The governance body that decides which initiatives should be included, and continue to be included, in the change portfolio*
Post-implementation Review A review undertaken as part of initiative closure on behalf of the SRO/sponsor, and for operational management post-initiative closure. The review encompasses consideration of:
  • Whether the forecast benefits have been realised and represent value for money (and if not whether any action is appropriate)
  • How additional value has been/can be created and what lessons can be learned to improve delivery and benefits realisation in the future.
  • Whether the original decision to invest was the right one given the information available at the time, and what can be learned for future decision-making.
  • Confirmation or disconfirmation of the business model – the elements in the model, their drivers and the linkages between them.
  • Updated data to inform ‘reference class’ forecasting.
  • How efficient and effective was the benefits management cycle, and are any changes to the portfolio benefits management framework required?
Post-investment Review An in-depth, independent review undertaken after initiative closure on behalf of the governance body that authorized the original investment*
PPM Project and program management*
Qualitative Benefits Benefits of a subjective or intangible nature*
Quantitative Benefits Benefits expressed in terms of a quantifiable improvement (in financial, percentage or other numerical terms) for example, costs (£/$/€) or time saved (hours/minutes)*
Real Option An option based on the right to buy/sell a tangible asset, rather than a financial one. Can be used to incorporate the value of flexibility and uncertainty into investment appraisal*
Real Price Cash flows adjusted for general inflation*
Reference Class Forecasting A technique where forecasts of an initiative’s duration, costs and benefits are derived from what actually occurred in a reference class of similar projects*
Responsible Refers to the individual who has the authority to do a task or activity assigned to them and who is expected to deliver it. Unlike accountability, responsibility can be shared and delegated*
Revealed Preference Determining ‘willingness to pay’ or ‘willingness to accept’ from observed behaviour. For example, the average house price next to an airport runway, compared with a similar house elsewhere*
Sensitivity Analysis A modelling and risk assessment procedure in which changes are made to significant variables in order to determine the effect of these changes on the planned outcome. Particular attention is thereafter paid to variables identified as being of special significance. (Source: CIMA, Management Accounting Official Terminology)*
Stage/Phase Gate Review Stage – a sub-division of the development phase of a project created to facilitate approval gates at suitable points in the lifecycle. Gate – the point between phases, gates and/or tranches where a go/no-go decision can be made about the remainder of the work. (Source: APM, 2013)*
Standard Deviation A measure of the distribution of values around the mean/average
Start Gate An early stage review to ensure that the transition from strategy/policy to formally established change initiative is justified*
Strategic Misrepresentation A term coined by Professor Bent Flyvbjerg to refer to the planned, systematic distortion or misstatement of costs and benefits to justify an investment*
Strategy A course of action, including the specification of resources required, to achieve a specific objective. (Source: CIMA, Management Accounting Official Terminology)*
Switching Point or Value The value of a variable at which point the decision to invest or not invest changes*
To-be State The planned state on successful completion of a change initiative*
Value for Money (VfM) HM Treasury (2004) defines value for money as ‘the optimum combination of whole-of-life costs and quality’*
Value Management Office A unit or function established to ensure that the organisation optimizes the return from its accumulated investment in change*
Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) The average cost of capital (from equity and debt capital), weighted to reflect the proportion of each form of financing employed. Used in determining the discount rate to apply to initiative cash flows*
Willingness to Accept The amount that someone is prepared to accept to give up a good or service. Estimated via revealed or stated preferences*
Willingness to Pay The amount that someone is prepared to pay to acquire a good or service without a market value. Estimated via revealed or stated preferences*